Country Snapshot:

Bolivia

Area in square km: 1,098,581
Defense expenditure as percentage of GDP (2010): 1.77%
Defense expenditure in dollars (2010): 336,894,359
Per capita GDP in dollars (2009): 4,700
Population (2010): 9,947,419
Size of armed forces (2010): 39,492
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index ranking (2010): 110 (out of 178)
U.S. military personnel present (2009): 14

U.S. Aid to Bolivia, All Programs, 2005-2014

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Grant military and police aid to Bolivia, All Programs, 2005-2014

Aid Program2005200620072008200920102011201220132014Program Total
International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement39,117,87637,206,00035,000,00025,423,00021,884,00015,800,00015,000,0007,500,0004,996,0004,996,000206,922,876
Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance5,604,0003,942,0001,967,0001,414,000431,0002,300,00082,0002,0002,0002,00015,746,000
International Military Education and Training57,000179,000224,950366,000198,000227,000175,000175,0001,601,950
Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies88,40050,25091,000331,90099,69075,60044,6009,5739,5739,573810,159
NADR - Conventional Weapons Destruction425,000425,000
Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program85,00038,48659,50834,51310,86210,86210,862250,093
Service Academies54,57567,91471,854194,343
Aviation Leadership Program15,23551,20237,176103,613
Excess Defense Articles76,00076,000
Global Peace Operations Initiative0
TOTAL44,971,27641,306,54637,293,62427,844,58922,639,64018,613,45415,324,6007,749,4355,193,4355,193,435226,130,034

All amounts in U.S. dollars. Numbers in italics are estimates, usually based on the closest year for which data are available.

Grant economic and social aid to Bolivia, All Programs, 2005-2014

Aid Program20052006200720082009201020112012Program Total
Development Assistance8,186,00010,091,00014,700,00026,618,00042,880,00035,248,00010,350,0007,000,000155,073,000
Child Survival and Health16,495,00017,233,00016,885,00016,936,00016,836,00016,910,00016,367,00014,100,000131,762,000
International Narcotics Control Economic Aid44,321,00038,244,00031,000,000534,000316,000114,415,000
PL 480 `Food for Peace`12,607,00015,953,00020,049,0008,985,00057,594,000
Economic Support Fund7,936,0005,940,0004,500,00016,862,00035,238,000
Peace Corps2,958,0002,888,0002,888,0002,888,0002,888,00014,510,000
Transition Initiatives5,373,0001,818,8427,191,842
Defense Department Humanitarian Assistance1,999,200468,7502,467,950
TOTAL92,503,00095,722,00091,840,84274,822,20063,388,75052,158,00026,717,00021,100,000518,251,792

All amounts in U.S. dollars. Numbers in italics are estimates, usually based on the closest year for which data are available.

All Grant Aid to Bolivia, All Programs, 2005-2014

2005200620072008200920102011201220132014TOTAL
TOTAL137,474,276137,028,546129,134,466102,666,78986,028,39070,771,45442,041,60028,849,4355,193,4355,193,435744,381,826

Military and Police Trainees from Bolivia, All Programs, 2005-2014

Aid Program20052006200720082009201020112012Program Total
Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance15911351652811131441
Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies191914224192082325
International Military Education and Training4111329231812209
Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program2574220
Foreign Military Financing21811
Aviation Leadership Program2439
International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement617
Global Peace Operations Initiative44
Service Academies1113
Professional Military Exchanges0
TOTAL186141202329565539211,029

U.S. Institutions that Trained Personnel from Bolivia, All Programs, 2005-2014 (Max. 20 Shown)

Institution200520062007200820092010Total
Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation447118636238
Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies19139738146187
Inter-American Air Forces Academy26209562894
Naval Small Craft Instruction and Technical Training School (NAVSCIATTS)272182159
Defense Language Institute English Language Center327111226
Army Aviation Center5343116
Army Command and General Staff College243110
Army Aviation Logistics School1236
Air Force Special Operations School44
Coast Guard Training Center33
Army War College112
Army Sergeants Major Academy112
Naval Aviation Schools Command,22
National Defense University112
Air Force Safety Center22
314th Airlift Wing11
Naval Diving and Salvage Training Center11
TOTAL861112471333741655

Arms and Equipment Sold to Bolivia, All Programs, 2005-2014

Program2005200620072008200920102011Program Total
Direct Commercial Sales1,210,93910,828,19625,695,4118,175,121233,8584,522,16015,434,59766,100,282
Foreign Military Sales4,967,0001,374,000361,000222,000163,000116,0007,203,000
TOTAL6,177,93912,202,19626,056,4118,397,121233,8584,685,16015,550,59773,303,282

All amounts in U.S. dollars.

Deployments and Operations in Bolivia, All Programs, 2005-2014

Program2005200620072008Program Total
Humanitarian and Civic Assistance386,784174,1631,794,93455,0002,410,881
TOTAL386,784174,1631,794,93455,0002,410,881

All amounts in U.S. dollars.

Official Descriptions of Aid to Bolivia

U.S. Department of State, 2012

Document: International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2012 Program and Budget Guide

Program: International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement

Program Overview

Bolivia is the world's third largest producer of cocaine and a major transit country for Peruvian-origin cocaine. In recent years, interdiction and eradication results have diminished as a result of the Government of Bolivia's (GOB) policies and actions, including the expulsion of the DEA in January 2009. Still, GOB officials recognize the growing threat posed by drug traffickers and Bolivia's pivotal role in the illicit drug industry requires continued U.S. engagement. The U.S. remains committed to working with the GOB to improve counternarcotics and justice sector results. INL will continue the transition of counternarcotics costs associated with interdiction and eradication to the GOB, as part of a regional nationalization strategy. As part of this transition, funds will be used to transition offices and personnel as the program shifts focus towards nationalization. Assistance will also help build the capacity of Bolivian law enforcement and criminal justice system actors to combat the corrosive effects of transnational crime.

Program Goals and Objectives

The Bolivia program supports the host government's efforts to combat transnational crime. The program also supports the embassy's FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan goals of refocusing the GOB on disrupting crime, drug trafficking, reducing coca cultivation and orienting security forces to operate in accordance with constitutional rule of law and international norms, as well as INL's FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goals related to Counternarcotics, Transnational Crime, and Criminal Justice Sector Capacity Building and Security Sector Reform (SSR).

Objective 1: Build institutional capability to interdict and eradicate narcotics and precursors produced within or transiting through Bolivia.

Objective 2: Enhance the capabilities of law enforcement to conduct criminal and financial investigations that will result in arrests and prosecutions of trafficking organizations.

Objective 3: Increase institutional capability to identify, prevent, and prosecute cases of transnational crime, including trafficking in persons.

FY 2012 Program

Counternarcotics

- Interdiction: Funds will provide logistical support to the GOB and assist the transition of interdiction costs to the GOB. This will include support such as field equipment and maintenance costs to the Bolivian National Police's Counternarcotics Division (FELCN), its command staff and rural patrol units (UMOPAR), a canine drug detection unit (K-9), and the Special Operations Force (FOE). The FOE includes an economic and financial investigations unit (GIAEF), a special intelligence and operations group (GIOE), and a precursor chemical investigations unit (GISUQ). Funds will assist the counternarcotics prosecutors and Garras del Valor training school with administrative and logistical support such as travel and per diem costs. The program will also provide support for operating costs (INFRA). Funds may provide limited support for the transition of ground transport (Green Devils Task Force), a riverine unit (Blue Devils Task Force), and fixed-wing (Black Devils Task Force) and rotary-wing aviation (Red Devils Task Force) to conduct interdiction operations.

- Law Enforcement Capacity Building: Funds will support efforts to build law enforcement capacity though training and development, including investigative skills, forensic sciences, human rights, and trafficking-in-persons. Funds will provide for infrastructure and logistical costs, such as travel, supplies, and basic equipment, as well as costs for support staff, trafficking-in-persons unit incentives, and victims' assistance.

- Demand Reduction: Funds will advance demand reduction, prevention, and treatment efforts through technical assistance, logistical support, equipment and workshop materials, and other assistance. The program will include grants to local non-governmental organizations to provide drug abuse prevention and rehabilitation programs in addition to youth drug abuse prevention programs, such as soccer leagues and Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) programs.

Department of State, 2011

Document: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report

Program: International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement

Under a 2006 bilateral Letter of Agreement, U. S. government programs seek to enhance the capabilities of the Bolivian government to reduce coca cultivation; arrest and bring traffickers to justice, promote integrated alternative development; disrupt the production of cocaine within Bolivia, interdict and destroy illicit drugs and precursor chemical moving within and through the country, reduce domestic abuse of cocaine and other illicit drugs, institutionalize a professional law enforcement system, and improve the Bolivian population’s awareness of the dangers of illicit drugs. To achieve these aims, the U. S. government provides administrative, logistical, financial and training support to Bolivian CN programs and to work productively with the Bolivians at the policy implementation and technical level.

In 2011, the United States supported the training of 4,424 police officers, prosecutors and other Bolivian government and NGO officials through 63 training courses, seminars and conferences. This included training for Bolivian police officers in Peru, Colombia and Argentina.

During 2011, the U. S. government funded six drug abuse prevention and rehabilitation projects. These included family-based drug prevention programs in Cochabamba and Tarija and drug prevention education programs with Bolivia's most renowned youth soccer academy.

U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Defense, 2009

Document: Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2009 and 2010

Bolivia is undergoing a significant transition in its political history. It traditionally enjoyed a strong bilateral relationship with the United States. Bolivia's policy of "coca yes, but cocaine zero" has created challenges for our cooperative counter- drug efforts. While the Morales Administration has complicated USG military-to-military engagement efforts, the Bolivian military continually expresses its desire to maintain close ties with its U.S. counterparts. Bolivia contributes over 200 troops to the MINUSTAH (Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en Haïti) peacekeeping mission in Haiti. U.S. government training and participation in joint exercises had enabled Bolivia to phase out the policy of compensating individuals for drug eradication, substantially reduce the amount of coca under cultivation in the Chapare region, and increase the number of arrests and chemical seizures. This effort is hampered by resistance from those who have profited from the production and trafficking of narcotics, particularly cocaine. Special Counternarcotics (CN) forces and certain select units of the military are active participants in the drug war.

While there is heightened concern about the Morales Administration's policies that allow for increased coca cultivation, Bolivia has been certified as cooperating with U.S. counternarcotics policy, and we have provided Professional Military Education (PME) and Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) training to continue to enhance the professionalism of Bolivia's armed forces. International Military Education and Training (IMET) and other programs include courses on human rights, NCO professional development, and battalion and brigade staff officer training, which help reinforce principles of democracy and civilian control of the military.

Bolivia has received Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds to send students to English language training and to regional center seminars conducted by the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and a Counterterrorism Fellows program at the National Defense University (NDU) in 2006. In FY 2007, Bolivia used CTFP funds to send a student to a U.S. Army Intermediate Level Education course, and sent students to CHDS in FY 2008.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes Bolivian participation at CHDS executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Bolivia that will transcend the current political situation.

U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Defense, 2008

Document: Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009

Bolivia is undergoing a significant transition in its political history. It traditionally enjoyed a strong bilateral relationship with the United States. Bolivia's policy of "coca yes, but cocaine zero" has created challenges for our cooperative counter- drug efforts. While the Morales Administration has complicated U.S. military-to-military engagement efforts, the Bolivian military continually expresses its desire to maintain close ties with its U.S. counterparts. Bolivia contributes over 200 troops to the MINUSTAH peacekeeping mission in Haiti. U.S. government training and participation in joint exercises had enabled Bolivia to phase out the policy of compensating individuals for drug eradication, substantially reduce the amount of coca under cultivation in the Chapare region, and increase the number of arrests and chemical seizures. This effort is hampered by resistance from those who have profited from the production and trafficking of narcotics, particularly cocaine. Special counternarcotics (CN) forces and certain select units of the military are active participants in the drug war.

While there is heightened concern about the Morales Administration's policies that allow for increased coca cultivation, Bolivia has been certified as cooperating with U.S. counternarcotics policy, and we have provided Professional Military Education (PME) and Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) training to continue to enhance the professionalism of Bolivia's armed forces. International Military Education and Training (IMET) and other programs include courses on human rights, NCO professional development, and battalion and brigade staff officer training, which help reinforce principles of democracy and civilian control of the military.

Bolivia has received Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) funds to send students to English language training and to regional center seminars conducted by the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) and a Counterterrorism Fellows program at the National Defense University (NDU) in 2006. In FY 2007, Bolivia used CTFP funds to send a student to a U.S. Army Intermediate Level Education course, and will send students to CHDS in FY 2008.

As a means of strengthening defense ties, the United States welcomes Bolivian participation at CHDS executive courses. These courses are designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, and they increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, leading to increased trust, transparency, and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Bolivia that will transcend the current political situation.

U.S. Department of State, 2011

Document: Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Program and Budget Guide, Fiscal Year 2011

Program: International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement

Program Overview

Bolivia is the world's third largest producer of cocaine and a major transit country for Peruvian-origin cocaine. In recent years, interdiction and eradication results have fallen as a result of GOB policies and actions, including the expulsion of the DEA in January 2009. Still, GOB officials recognize the growing threat posed by drug traffickers and Bolivia's pivotal role in the illicit drug industry requires continued U.S. engagement. The U.S. remains committed to working with the GOB to improve counternarcotics and justice sector results, expand the capacity of the GOB, and increase regional and international support for Bolivian counterdrug efforts.

Program Goals and Objectives

The Bolivia program supports the host government's efforts to combat transnational crime. The program also supports the embassy's FY 2011 Mission Strategic Plan goal of refocusing the GOB on disrupting crime and drug trafficking and reducing coca cultivation, as well as INL's FY 2011 Bureau Strategic Plan goals of Counternarcotics, Transnational Crime and Criminal Justice Sector Capacity Building and Security Sector Reform (SSR).


Objective 1: Build institutional capability to interdict and eradicate narcotics and precursors produced within or transiting through Bolivia.

Objective 2: Enhance the capabilities of law enforcement to conduct criminal and financial investigations that will result in arrests and prosecutions of trafficking organizations.

Objective 3: Increase institutional capability to identify, prevent, and prosecute cases of transnational crime, including trafficking in persons.

FY 2011 Program


Interdiction: Funds will provide logistics support, such as field equipment and maintenance costs, to the Bolivian National Police's Counternarcotics Division (FELCN), its command staff and rural patrol units (UMOPAR), a canine drug detection unit (K-9), and the Special Operations Force (FOE). The FOE includes an economic and financial investigations unit (GIAEF), a special intelligence and operations group (GIOE), and a precursor chemical investigations unit (GISUQ). Funds will also support the counternarcotics prosecutors and Garras del Valor training school with administrative and logistics support, such as travel and perdiem costs. The program will also provide support for operating costs (INFRA), ground transport (Green Devils Task Force), a riverine unit (Blue Devils Task Force), and for fixed-wing (Black Devils Task Force) and rotary-wing aviation (Red Devils Task Force) to conduct interdiction operations. This is an ongoing project.

Eradication: Funds will provide infrastructure and logistics support, such as equipment, medical/hygienic supplies, and vehicle support and maintenance, to the Joint Eradication Task Force (JTF); the entity that supervises destruction and rationalization of illicit coca (DIGPROCOCA); the National Police for JTF security; and the Ecological Police (ECOPOL) for location and preparation of eradication sites. The program will also provide support for operating costs (INFRA), ground transport (Green Devils Task Force), a riverine unit (Blue Devils Task Force), and fixed-wing (Black Devils Task Force) and rotary-wing aviation (Red Devils Task Force) to conduct eradication operations. This is an ongoing project.

Law Enforcement Development and Training: Funds will support efforts to build law enforcement capacity though training and development, including in key areas such as investigative skills, forensic sciences, human rights, and trafficking-in-persons. Funds will support infrastructure and logistics costs, such as travel costs, supplies, and basic equipment, as well as costs for support staff, trafficking-in-persons unit incentives, and victims' assistance. This is an ongoing project.

U.S. Department of State, 2009

Document: 2009 End-Use Monitoring Report

Program: International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement

LA PAZ

Background

The Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS), U.S. Embassy La Paz, provides technical, administrative, and logistical support to Bolivian counternarcotics (CN) operations nationwide. More than 4,000 program participants from the Bolivian National Police (BNP), Bolivian Armed Forces, governmental and non-governmental (NGO) agencies are involved in interdiction, eradication, and law enforcement development programs. During CY 2009, NAS provided to the Government of Bolivia uniforms, field equipment, computers, office furniture and equipment, vehicles, aviation and ground fuel, limited economic incentives, travel funds and per diem, lease payments for offices and other facilities, utilities payments, food services, and medical supplies and services to support 24 counternarcotics and law enforcement projects in Bolivia. This support was funded with a budget of USD $26.3 million.

EUM Program Coordinator



The NAS Management Officer, Bevan Benjamin, has primary responsibility for End Use Monitoring, under the general supervision of the NAS Director and Deputy Director.

Inventory System

NAS La Paz maintains a comprehensive inventory of all Program Development and Support (PD&S) items under the WEBPASS system. Host nation-titled property that remains in NAS custody is monitored through the NAS-developed National Integrated System (NIS) Warehouse Module. An inventory of property under the direct control of all NAS personnel was conducted between October 1, 2008 and January 31, 2009 and the reconciliation was submitted to the Department in March 2009. The EUM software developed by the Logistics Section of the Bolivian Counternarcotics Police (FELCN) in 2008, in conjunction with NAS, experienced some technical problems that resulted in the discontinuation of the program. Currently an "off the shelf" accounting package called MONICA is being tested at the Blue Devil Task Force (BDTF) facility in Trinidad. If this turns out to be acceptable, post will implement this software in other NAS supported projects. In addition, a Fixed Asset Tracking (FAT) module was implemented in the NIS in 2008. In 2009, NAS property management personnel began the process of uploading data into FAT with the latest nationwide physical inventory broken down by project, region, issue date, and other categories. The data of this new module will also be updated automatically every time new items are issued to host nation-supported projects by NAS warehouses, enabling users to get up-to-date, on-line information of all items issued. 

Staff Member EUM Responsibilities

As of the end of CY 2009, NAS La Paz staff consisted of three U.S. Direct Hires, three U.S. Personal Services Contractors (PSCs), and one Eligible Family Member (EFM). The NAS Director departed in May 2009 and a new Director arrived in November. The Management Officer arrived in July 2009. There are three U.S. PSC positions in Santa Cruz and one U.S. PSC position in Cochabamba. The Regional Director position in Santa Cruz became vacant in November 2009. An interim director (When Actively Employed employee) provides coverage in Santa Cruz at this time. A new Regional Director for Santa Cruz has been hired and will assume his duties in February 2010. One PSC position was filled in January 2009 for the Red Devils Task Force (RDTF) in Santa Cruz. Another PSC position in Santa Cruz, the RDTF Maintenance and Logistics Advisor, became vacant in March 2009 and will not be filled. These regional positions supervise and monitor all procurement, warehousing, personnel, communications, transportation, and other administrative and financial requirements related to NAS-funded projects. NAS Project Officers, NAS Regional Directors in Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, and the NAS Resources Control Staff assist the NAS Management Officer in EUM.

U.S. Direct Hire Program Officers and PSCs also require adequate justification and strict accountability prior to initiating new procurement actions. NAS staff members primarily conducted regular reviews to account for and verify the condition and use of USG equipment and property provided to the GOB. Officials of other agencies and offices, such as; USMILGRP, USAID, and INL Air Wing, monitored end use on their own visits. NAS Program Officers, Regional Directors and NAS La Paz leadership conducted regular announced and unannounced field visits to all projects, and maintain frequent contact with project personnel. NAS Budget and Resources Control staff, conduct spot inspections of property records, impress funds record keeping, and vehicle/fuel usage reports. Fuel consumption reports countrywide are consolidated and reviewed by the NAS Resources Control Unit on a monthly basis. NAS Project Assistants are responsible for EUM of all items issued to NAS supported projects. This includes but is not limited to office supplies, cleaning supplies, military equipment and non-expendable items. Project assistants perform spot checks of inventory items when visiting project sites.



The Aviation Advisors regularly report the operational status of all NAS-supported aviation assets to the NAS Director and Deputy Director. NAS aviation contract personnel participate in inventory management and property oversight. NAS motor pool personnel in the regional offices conduct unannounced checks of vehicles two or three months after a change of pilferable items (e.g. batteries, voltage regulators, etc.) to ensure that they were not removed from the vehicles by project personnel and replaced with older ones. This practice has proven to be effective in discouraging pilferage. Other personnel involved in the physical control of USG and GOB property (property custodial officers) include the Accountable Property Officer, Program Coordinators and Assistants, Warehouse Supervisors and Supply Clerks. Custodial Officer responsibilities include the physical control of USG and GOB property within the designated area of responsibility, including; (1) signing Receiving and Inspection Reports (DS-127), accepting and receiving accountable property on behalf of the USG as defined in 14 FAM 413.3; (2) custody, care, and safekeeping of all accountable property; (3) periodically completing and reconciling a physical inventory; (4) completing required reports as outlined in NAS procedures; (5) supervising and training personnel assigned property management duties; (6) preparing survey reports and documenting inventory shortages or damages for the Accountable Property Officer; and (7) implementing NAS property management policies and management directives. Under the supervision of the Accountable Property Officer, Area Custodial Officers are required to take a 100% inventory annually and submit results for consolidation between October 1 and January 30.

If there are any major problems or discrepancies, these are reviewed during February and the report is submitted to the Property Management Officer for Host Nation titled property and A/LM prior to March 15 of that year for State Department Property. Biennial inventories of selected high dollar value and sensitive items are conducted by regional warehouse personnel covering the projects within their region, in conjunction with regional Program Assistants. The Accountable Property Officer (APO) and Resources Control personnel are formally designated to perform on-site inspections; however, Program Officers, Program Assistants, Regional Directors, as well as other managers including upper management are encouraged to carry out these types of inspections and have conducted a number of on-site visits as detailed below. The Property Management Officer and Accountable Property Officers are responsible for implementing monitoring procedures. The receiving agent is responsible for the receipt and inspection of all property and the preparation and distribution of receiving reports. The Property Disposal Officer (NAS Ground Programs Officer) oversees disposal of materials. The NAS has formally designated personnel to carry out these duties. ISO 9000 certification effort was postponed through lack of funding. NAS will complete certification as funds are made available; however, several NAS sections have already implemented procedures to comply with ISO 9000 standards.

Other USG Agencies Assistance

Other USG agencies assisting in EUM included the USMILGRP and USAID. The Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) left in January 2009 and no longer operates in Bolivia. USAID/EXO provides customs clearance services under ICASS for mission Bolivia. 

Counterpart Agencies

Agricultural Reconversion (DIRECO/DIGPROCOCA)


Black Devil Task Force (BKDTF), Bolivian Air Force
Red Devil Task Force (RDTF), Bolivian Air Force
Green Devil Task Force (GDTF), Transportation Battalion, Bolivian Army
Anti-narcotics Training Center (GARRAS del Valor)
Chemical Investigations Group (GISUQ)
Directorate of Seized Assets of the Bolivian National Police (DIRCABI)
Ecological Police (ECOPOL)
Economic & Financial Investigations & Analysis Group (GIAEF)


Financial Investigation Unit of the Bolivian National Police (FIU)
Joint Task Force (JTF)
National Council for the Fight Against Illicit Drugs (CONALTID)
BNP Special Force for the Fight against Narcotics Trafficking (FELCN) – The Logistics Section of the FELCN is the most developed logistics entity within the GOB and assists in End-Use Monitoring for interdiction programs.
Mobile Rural Patrol Unit (UMOPAR)
Special Group for Coca Leaf Control (GECC)
Special Intelligence and Operations Group (GIOE)
Special Operations Force (FOE)
Bolivian Navy Blue Devils Task Force (BDTF)


FELCN's Drug Detection Canine Unit (K-9)
Special Criminal Investigation Unit (GTIDE)
Office of Professional Responsibility of the Bolivian National Police (OPR)
Prosecutors Program (Fiscales)
Trafficking in Persons offices of the Bolivian National Police (TIPS)
Vice Ministry for Social Defense (GOB)
UELICN (Unidad Ejecutora) - Ministry of Government

Receipt

Procedures used to document the provision of items provided to agencies are as follows: All interagency transfers are documented using the proper forms (DS-584). Provisions to host nation-supported projects are documented on the OF-127 or DS-127 form. Receipts generated from the Property Management Section using the NIS are signed at the time of delivery by the end user.



Monitoring Procedures

On-Site Inspections






The number of scheduled on-site inspections performed:

10
The number of unscheduled on-site inspections performed: 15
The number of counterpart sites and cities visited: 25

Date Location







































01/13/2009 Chimore
01/15/2009 Yungas, Coroico, Irupana
04/21/2009 Chimore
04/23/2009 Chimore
05/10/2009 Chimore
05/19/2009 Santa Cruz
05/06/2009 Tarija, Bermejo
05/10/2009 Sucre, Potosi
05/19/2009 Suapi (Yungas)
06/08/2009 Cochabamba
07/07/2009 Yungas
07/28/2009 Trinidad, GYA
08/02/2009 S. Ignacio, S. Matias, Pto. Suarez
08/31/2009 Chimore
09/08/2009 Cochabamba
09/28/2009 Yungas
10/08/2009 Chimore
10/13/2009 Yungas
11/10/2009 Yungas
11/23/2009 Yungas
11/30/20009 Yungas
12/01/2009 Chimore
12/07/2009 Chimore
12/09/2009 Yungas
12/14/2009 Yungas

Approximately 27,652 non-expendable property items were distributed nationwide to supported host government projects, valued at over $13 million (not including vehicles).

In general, approximately 50% of the higher value items are inspected throughout the year in addition to personnel carrying out preventive and corrective maintenance. Vehicles are personally inspected regularly during routine maintenance. Program Assistants are also encouraged to conduct "spot checks" of issued property. The Garras School for example was spot checked for at least 60% of their inventory, whereas for OPR, 95% of the assigned items were inspected and verified.

Secondary Method of Monitoring Resources Status

Comparison of Records. Although the use of the EUM software package developed by NAS and the FELCN has been discontinued, delivery records are compared with existing items in the case of nonexpendable property and against estimated consumption in the case of consumables or expendable property.



Discussions: NAS personnel made several visits to various project offices around the country where visual inspections and inquiries were made of the donated materials. For example, Law Enforcement and Development Program (LEDP) personnel made several visits to the CN Prosecutor, TIPs and OPR offices around the country where visual inspections were conducted, and inquiries made regarding assigned equipment.

Approximately 15% of donated items on average are monitored using secondary methods.

Status-Commodities

Aircraft

The NAS supports the Black Devils Task Force, a Bolivian Air Force unit that is equipped with three C-130B Hercules transport planes to ferry cargo and one King Air B200. NAS projects also include two light fixed-wing aircraft and nine UH-1H helicopters, maintained under the Red Devils Task Force (RDTF) program.

A U.S. PSC Aviation Advisor provides supervision to the BKDTF. The C-130s were Excess Defense Articles (EDA) that was transferred to the GOB in various years since the 1990's. The BKDTF consists of 17 Bolivian Air Force (FAB) pilots, copilots, flight engineers and navigators, in addition to 58 enlisted maintenance personnel. The BKDTF is located at the 1st Air Brigade Base next to the airport at El Alto. The BKDTF project is also supported by four Third Country National (TCN) contract mechanics that provide quality assurance and supervision for the Bolivian Air Force mechanics. Two Locally Employed Staff (LES) employees provide logistics support and manage the C-130B warehouse operation. These employees report directly to the Aviation Advisor and ensure accountability for C-130B parts and equipment. The U.S. PSC Aviation Advisor, the NAS Deputy Director and Director approve all routine and operational missions and expenditures for the BKDTF project.



Bolivian Air Force personnel assigned to the RDTF maintain, support, and operate the INL/A-owned UH-1H aircraft and NAS-supported C-206 aircraft. The RDTF is comprised nominally of 157 FAB personnel. However, as the year progressed available manning decreased steadily as the FAB and GOB diverted assigned personnel to duties and tasks outside the CN mission. The RDTF is advised and assisted by 18 DynCorp International Technical Advisor contractor personnel in the areas of aircraft maintenance, logistics, POL, operational standardization, safety and information technology. Fourteen NAS LES' and a U.S. Personal Services Contractor (PSC) provide oversight and end use monitoring of both NAS and INL resources. This year began with the RDTF operating and maintaining a fleet of 11 Bell UH-1H helicopters and 2 Cessna C-206 fixed-wing aircraft. The operation, employment, and maintenance of the aircraft, as well as the aircrew and mechanic training, are conducted under the regulatory guidance of the Department of State INL Air Wing located at Patrick Air Force Base, FL. The helicopters are the property of the USG but the airplanes are titled to the GOB. The primary base for RDTF operations is in Santa Cruz, Bolivia at El Trompillo Airport. The RDTF also operates out of two permanent Forward Operating Locations (FOLs) located in Chimore and Trinidad.

DynCorp International provides maintenance and logistical support, technical expertise, and oversight directly to the RDTF personnel, with additional training support provided through USMILGRP. The fixed-wing aircraft maintenance program is now mostly nationalized, in that Bolivian Air Force personnel provide all the assistance in this area. Operational control of the aircraft resides with the NAS Director in Bolivia and is exercised through an RDTF Senior Aviation Advisor, who is a PSC. He is accountable to the NAS Director and Deputy Director and provides oversight of NAS-provided commodities to ensure they are used exclusively for NAS-funded/authorized activities. Only the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Mission, or the NAS Director can authorize non-routine missions, such as humanitarian missions. Additionally, oversight of INL resources, as well as Contractor Logistical Support contract compliance is provided by the Senior Aviation and Maintenance Advisors. Aircraft status is tracked continually through daily reports and a weekly report of flying operations and maintenance status provided by the Senior Aviation advisor to the NAS Director. Aviation Resource Management inspections are conducted by INL personnel on an annual basis. During these inspections, all aspects of flying operations-training, operations, and maintenance are thoroughly reviewed. The RDTF is currently up to nine "Fully Mission Capable" aircraft with repairs to corroded aircraft having been completed. In 2009, the RDTF lost two aircraft – one due to excessive corrosion and subsequent shipment back to Patrick Support Division in Melbourne, FL. The second aircraft was lost following an in-flight engine failure and subsequent hard landing in rough terrain. No lives were lost.







BKDTF
C-130 B 3
King Air B200 1







RDTF
Cessna 206 2
UH-1H 9


Vehicles













BDTF
Trucks 1
SUV 17
Motorcycles 17
Pickups 6
Tractors 2











BKDTF
SUV 7
Motorcycles 2
Pickups 5
Quadratrack 3

CANINE


SUV
23


Motorcycles
3


Pickups
11


Bus
1



FELCN


Automobiles
18


Trucks
1


SUV
69


Motorcycles
67


Pickups
34


Quadratrack
1


Van
3



FOE


Automobiles
71


Trucks
1


SUV
65


Motorcycles
97


Pickups
20


Quadratrack
4


Van
10


DIGPROCOCA


Trucks
4


SUV
40


Motorcycles
12


Pickups
47


ECOPOL


SUV
5


Motorcycles
1


Pickups
9


GISUQ


Automobiles
8


SUV
12


Motorcycles
29


Pickups
13


GARRAS


SUV
7


Motorcycles
2


Pickups
3


Bus
2


GDTF


Trucks
58


SUV
4


Motorcycles
2


Pickups
1


Fuel Truck
7


HMMWV
27


Crane
2


Tractor
5


Dump Truck
8


Contact Truck
2


Water Trailer
4


Fork Lift
3


Trailer
3


GECC


Automobiles
2


SUV
15


Motorcycles
20


Pickups
27


GIAEF


Automobiles
3


SUV
2


Motorcycles
16


Pickups
4


GISUQ


Quadratrack
1


GOB


SUV
1


INFRA


Trucks
21


SUV
41


Motorcycles
12


Pickups
30


Fuel Truck
4


Truck
1


JTF


SUV
14


Pickups
13


Ambulance
2


LEDP


SUV
4


OPR


SUV
3


Motorcycles
37


Pickups
5



PREVENTION


Automobiles
2


SUV
1


Motorcycles
6



PROSECUTORS


Automobiles
5


SUV
21


Motorcycles
26


Pickups
8


RDTF


Trucks
1


SUV
28


Motorcycles
0


Pickups
3


Fuel Truck
8


Bus
1


Tractor
1


Van
2


TIPS


Automobiles
4


SUV
6


Pickups
3


Van
1


UMOPAR


Trucks
2


SUV
103


Motorcycles
69


Pickups
61


Quadratrack
4


Tractor
1


Ambulance
4



NAS currently maintains 1,525 project vehicles of which 713 are more than 10 years old. The NAS also supports a Bolivian Army Transportation Battalion designated as the Green Devils Task Force located in Santa Cruz. The GDTF's primary mission is to provide ground transportation support for CN operations. The GDTF transports fuel, cargo and personnel supporting eradication and interdiction operations. Its secondary mission is to train Bolivian Army personnel in specialized vehicle maintenance and repair from organizational to depot level maintenance, warehouse operations, and operation of heavy wheeled U.S. military vehicles. Currently there are 126 vehicles in the GDTF of which 119 are military vehicles acquired through Department of Defense Foreign Military Financing (FMF). The GDTF vehicle fleet consists of:





































GDTF
2-1/2 Ton Trucks 58
M49 2-1/2 Ton Fuel Trucks 2
HMMWV 25
HMMWV Ambulance 2
5-Ton Dump Trucks 8
5-Ton Tractors 3
5-Ton Wreckers 2
40-Ton Tractors 2
Contact Trucks 2
International Harvester Fuel Trucks 3
Fuel Tankers (5000 Gals) 2
12-Ton Semi-Trailers 2
40-Ton Semi-Trailer Low Bed 1
Water Trailers 4
Hyster Fork Lift (3000 Lbs) 1
Petty Bone Fork Lifts (6000 Lbs) 2
NAS Project Vehicles 7

The GDTF is organized with 125 Bolivian Army personnel and is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel. One U.S. PSC and nine NAS LES personnel are responsible for ensuring operational readiness. In 2009, the unit maintained an average operational readiness of 96%. The GDTF is maintained according to U.S. Army maintenance standards. It conducts unit level as well as Direct Support, General Support, and Depot-level maintenance. NAS personnel assist in the management of military repair parts using an automated U.S. Army inventory control system. All other project vehicles are maintained through one of the eight major full service motor pool facilities that NAS operates in remote service areas, or at designated locally contracted service facilities. All vehicles are evaluated when they are fueled, serviced, or repaired. If a vehicle is damaged or unmaintained, the motor pool requires official reports from the responsible employee on the cause of damage. Currently NAS motor pools on a national scale service between 455 and 576 vehicles per month.

Vessels

NAS supports a riverine unit of the Bolivian Navy--the Blue Devil Task Force. The BDTF is a 140-person unit organized into six task groups with a headquarters and Riverine Training School in Trinidad. The BDTF task groups are located in Trinidad, Riberalta, Guayaramerin, La Horquilla, Cobija, and Puerto Villaroel. The NAS regional office in Trinidad supports the BDTF Trinidad headquarters, the unit's Riverine School, and all task groups (except for the group in Puerto Villaroel, which is supported by NAS/Chimore).



BDTF
"Mother ships"

3
Boston Whaler

33 (7 inoperable)
Zodiac rafts

50 (23 inoperable)
Aluminum Boats

21 (8 inoperable)

These boats were transferred to the Bolivian Navy via the Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program or constructed (in the case of the mother ships) with INL funding.

Weapons

The NAS does not monitor weapons in the possession of the GOB and therefore must rely on GOB reporting for weapons status. The USMILGRP donated in prior years the weapons listed below. FELCN maintains a computerized inventory of these weapons. Due to tensions between the police and military it is no longer feasible to store FELCN weapons at the Ingavi Army Base. The majority of FELCN weapons have been transferred to alternate locations until a proper arms warehouse can be constructed on FELCN property. NAS does not currently provide any lethal assistance to Bolivian police or military units.













BDTF
M-16 80 (3 inoperable, 1 missing)
M-60 51 (11 inoperable, 1 missing)
M-9 118 (1 inoperable, 2 missing)
Cassesa rifle 27 (11 inoperable, 1 missing)
Sig 510 assault rifle 2 (1 inoperable, 1 missing)

All arms reported as missing were lost or stolen prior to 2001. No arms were reported as missing in 2009.





















FELCN
Rifle, M16 1056
Pistol, M9 615
Squad Automatic Weapon M-249 4
Carbine, M-4 280
Machine Gun, M-60 11
Machine Gun, M-60D 23
Mossberg Shotgun 183
Grenade Launcher, M-79 88
Grenade Launcher, M-203 43

Status-Services



Construction Projects

The following lists the status of construction projects throughout the country:

NAS Warehouse in Beni - 100%
FELCN VILLAZON in Potosi - 100%
LEDP Offices in Seguencoma - 100%
Valenciani in La Paz - 50%
Chapare FTC in Chimore - 100%
Garras remodeling in Chimore - 40%


Diablos Verdes in Santa Cruz - 97%
FELCN parking in Santa Cruz - 70%
RDTF Electric in Santa Cruz - 100%

The NAS Construction Section also completed 661 infrastructure maintenance requirements nationally, using LES maintenance technicians and outside contractors:





La Paz, Yungas



12

Cochabamba, Chapare



595

Santa Cruz 50
Beni Pando 4

Prevention and Demand Reduction Programs

The USG continued to operate several drug prevention and demand reduction programs despite the GOB's limited interest in working with the U.S. Mission. Due to lack of GOB support on a national level, the USG focused outreach and educational activities at the municipal and regional levels. These USG-sponsored programs seek to change beliefs about drugs and usage patterns over the long term, and therefore help to achieve USG CN objectives.

The USG supported 13 drug prevention and demand reduction programs in Bolivia during 2009, in addition to various other one-time activities, such as a student awareness day and several sports events for at risk youth. These USG-sponsored programs enabled prevention messages to reach over 100,000 Bolivians during the year.

The NAS-supported D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program works to educate Bolivian youth about the dangers of illegal drugs. The program reached approximately 18,000 students in 2009. Since February 2008, NAS has been working with the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to conduct a drug abuse prevention and citizen safety project in El Alto that educates teachers, students, and community members. To date, the program has reached at least 80,000 people. Post is also working with a local NGO to fund a community-based drug abuse prevention program for high-school students in the cities of La Paz and Sucre that is expected to reach 20,000 youths. In the Department of Cochabamba, NAS helped implement the region's "Healthy Schools Drug Prevention Program" by training health professionals, teachers, and parents about drug abuse prevention. Post is also conducted training in demand reduction issues and techniques for several technical teams of trainers from the municipalities of Cochabamba, Tarija, Sucre and Guayaramerin. Additionally, NAS funded one drug demand research study during the year, which is ongoing.



The NAS conducts a sports outreach effort by sponsoring the "Tahuichi" Soccer Academy in Santa Cruz in putting on a tournament in the coca growing area of the Yungas that involved three teams and 70 youth participants. This initiative also provided three year-long soccer scholarships to at-risk children from rural areas to live, study, and train at the academy for one year. In total, the NAS supported 13 drug prevention and drug demand reduction programs in 2009, in addition to various other one-time activities, such as a Student Awareness Day and several sports events for at-risk youth.

LEDP - The Law Enforcement & Development Program (LEDP) Section of NAS provides administrative and logistical support to seven (7) NAS/GOB Projects: LETDP; Office of Professional Responsibility (OPR); Counter Narcotics Prosecutor Program; Garras del Valor CN Training School; Financial Investigative Unit (FIU); Trafficking in Persons (TIP) and DIRCABI. Under the "Development" part of the LETDP, NAS provides administrative and infrastructure support to the Bolivian National Police as an institution with various national and regional projects.

There have been nine Garras del Valor courses with 353 certified participants; two Advanced CN Jungle operations courses, one for males (with international students) and one for females (with international students), two CN Combat Paramedic courses (1 basic, 1 advanced), one Jungle Tactical Operation (OTS) course, one Special Assault Group (GECHA) course, one international Clandestine Labs Course, one Demolition course and one refresher course for Garras School Instructors.

The NAS supported the following courses: 48 LEDP courses around the country with 5585 certified participants; two Financial Investigation and Money Laundering courses, nine Advanced Interview Technique (TAE) courses, two Shooting Simulator Training System courses (Use of Force), four Basic Criminal Investigation (BCI) courses, six Basic and Advanced Computer courses, two First Responder courses for BNP/ANAPOL Cadets, eight Trafficking in Persons (TIP) courses, one ballistic Criminal Investigation course, one identification documents course, one project involving 46 workshop sessions, one BNP Women Rights International Conference, one Crisis Control course, one Operational Intelligence course, phases I-II of the i3 Case tracking system courses, one Electronic Evidence in Criminal Investigation course and two Surveillance Detection courses. There also have been two Office of Professional Responsibility (OPR) Administrative procedures workshops supported by the NAS.



The NAS also provided a Polygraph Examiner Certification Training course for 10 GOB/Counter Narcotics Prosecutors in La Paz. LEDP Section Instructors and other designated NAS project personnel attended four international courses; a TIP course for Law Enforcement Professionals, a course on Crime Scene for Police and Prosecutors, and one on Post Blast Investigation for Fire Fighters and Police personnel, all at ILEA Lima, Peru; and an Advanced Management Course for Prosecutors at ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico.

Under the Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Project, NAS sponsored one International TIP Conference in Cochabamba with over 200 attendees. Other seminars on TIP Victims' Rights and Reintegration took place in La Paz, in coordination with the Italian Government Cooperation Office.

The NAS LEDTP project was able in 2009 to almost double the number of training courses supported, as well as police officers and prosecutors trained. In 2008 NAS provided support to the BNP to implement 26 courses and train about 3000 personnel. In 2009, NAS supported 56 courses with 5700 police and prosecutors trained.

Other Professional Services

Food Service – the NAS provided food services to various branches of the Bolivian Armed Forces, National Police and civilian personnel in the field to support eradication efforts for CY 2009. Food services for the year totaled over $2.5 million and consisted of food supplies, preparation and delivery.

Canine Program - NAS funds all aspects of Bolivia's K-9 program, including training, infrastructure, and provision of medical supplies. The program is composed of 125 dogs and 88 handlers. While most of the dogs are used for drug detection, there are three explosive detection teams. During 2009, K-9 units posted at Bolivian airports seized 207,277 grams of cocaine HCL and 515,263 grams of cocaine base. Bolivian CN units report that the current level of K-9 teams is far lower than needed to properly support country-wide interdiction operations. To address that deficiency, the NAS is supporting a new breeding program that will help alleviate current deficiencies. Food, medicines (vaccines, antibiotics, antifungal, antiparasite), supplies (bandages, chalk, disinfectants, etc), and veterinary equipment and veterinary services (X ray, ultrasound, and other services) totaled $50,778 in 2009.



Medical – the NAS covers costs of treatment for medical emergencies of project personnel. Typical services include treatment for bullet wounds, vehicle accident trauma, snake bites, and diseases common in the tropics such as salmonella, dengue, and leishmaniasis. NAS also procures medicines for eradication and interdiction projects. These include antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretics, cough and cold preparations, decongestants, dermatologicals, muscle relaxants, opthalmologicals, anesthetics, antacids, antibacterials, and antifungal treatments. Medical equipment provided includes wheelchairs, stretchers, oxygen, examination tables, and minor surgical equipment. In 2009, NAS provided $320,265.61 in medical services, supplies and equipment. $158,593 of that was for medical services.

Communications – the NAS provided 2064 sets of communication equipment, including repeaters, base stations, mobile radios, and UHF hand-held radios to various projects distributed throughout Bolivia. Equipment supported operations of the FELCN, UMOPAR, FOE, AIROPS, BDTF, and other projects.

A total of 260 pieces of equipment were disposed of during the year, and 3025 pieces purchased, including accessories. NAS technicians usually perform equipment maintenance in the NAS-controlled repair facility in La Paz. Frequent field visits are made to verify condition and proper use of the equipment as well as to perform preventive maintenance.

Computer Equipment - the NAS has provided 31 pieces of computer equipment, 138 printers, 2 data shows, 12 scanners, 18 Laptops, 10 canopy antennas Access Point (10mb, 5.7 mhz), 20 Subscribers Canopy (10mb 2.4mhz), and other devices to NAS and GOB agencies participating in NAS-funded activities. NAS currently maintains around 4650 pieces of computer equipment (CPU, Monitors, Printers, Scanners, Laptops, and Data Shows) and 18 servers at its project sites. The Access Point (Canopy) system was installed in the main office of the FELCN in La Paz to provide internet services to 20 FELCN programs, TIPS and OPR offices of the Bolivian National Police. With this service we have reduced 80% of the cost of internet service for those programs by eliminating the need for external Internet Service Providers in La Paz. Post is in the process of replacing the commercial ENTEL communication link that we have between NAS Cochabamba and NAS Chimore with a wireless communication system. This option will reduce the total cost of providing the NASBOL system to those offices by 35%. The NAS installs and provides support and maintenance to all communication equipment in Santa Cruz, Trinidad and Cobija.



Program Impact

Eradication

Most eradication takes place in the Cochabamba Tropics, Bolivia's principal region for the cultivation of illegal coca and the production of cocaine, and is an essential element of our bilateral CN strategy. Prior Bolivian Governments have been unable to establish an effective program for controlling coca cultivation in the Yungas of La Paz Department, where approximately two-thirds of the coca in Bolivia is grown. The GOB eradicated 460 hectares in the Yungas in 2009. Ninety-nine per cent of all the Chapare coca and approximately 50% of the Yungas-grown coca is used for making cocaine. The GOB eradicated 6341 hectares of coca in the entire country in 2009, which was a 15% increase from 2008; however, total coca cultivation increased (UNODC data shows 32,500 hectares in 2008, the latest figures available). Potential cocaine production from Bolivian cultivation is estimated at over 130 metric tons. 

Interdiction

Equipping and supporting of Bolivian CN units has enabled the successful execution of interdiction operations on land and water. Bolivian CN offices employ 1,540 people who serve in more than 20 posts across the country. In 2009, these CN units carried out 711 operations, during which they seized: 1574 Metric Tons (MTs) of coca leaf; 22 MTs of cocaine base; 5 MTs of cocaine HCL; 871 MTs of solid precursor chemicals (e.g. sulfuric acid, bicarbonate of soda); and 1,578,681 liters of liquid precursors (e.g. acetone, diesel, ether, etc.). CN units destroyed 4864 cocaine base laboratories and 16 cocaine HCL laboratories.

Communications Equipment



NAS-provided equipment enabled efficient and effective communications within the various projects and between the projects and NAS project management personnel. Due to the remote nature of the work in Bolivia, reliable equipment is essential and has also greatly assisted in responding to medical emergencies.

Weapons

Bolivia has strict laws that dictate that weapons used by GOB personnel may be used only in self-defense and as a deterrent. 

Construction Projects

The NAS construction engineers/architects advice, design and provide oversight during all phases of construction projects related to NAS-funded activities. The engineers are also responsible for executing projects by direct administration under the supervision of Program Managers. The impact of the construction projects has strengthened significantly the living and working conditions of CN personnel in remote areas, and has helped raise the morale and efficiency of the units in the field.

Surveillance Equipment



X-ray and laboratory equipment. The NAS purchases laboratory supplies for FELCN laboratories. The materials help FELCN to test the chemical properties of substances to determine whether they are illegal drugs. The NAS has also provided three X-ray machines and various expendable supplies, including reagents and glass flasks, to FELCN for use in detecting narcotics at the country's airports. In 2009, FELCN carried out 487 operations at the Santa Cruz "Viru Viru" airport and seized 16,626 grams of cocaine.

Vessels, Aircraft, Vehicles

Resources provided by NAS were instrumental in key operations such as Operation Brabo conducted by the FELCN in April 2009 that took down one of the largest crystallization labs ever found in Bolivia.  The NAS provided logistical support and resources, including fuel, MREs, hot meals, water, equipment, vehicles; helicopter support transporting CN police, GOB authorities, prosecutors, judges, defendants and their lawyers, and reporters; and the GDTF transported heavy equipment including tractors and generators from the clandestine site to Santa Cruz.

Drug traffickers frequently transport cocaine base that originates in Peru, the greater La Paz area, and northern Santa Cruz to Brazil via Bolivia's extensive river system. The vessels NAS has provided to the BDTF are used to support interdiction operations on these rivers. In 2009, the BDTF performed 150 operations, during which they destroyed 131 cocaine processing factories; seized 594,500 pounds of coca leaf, 2983 liters of liquefied cocaine, six vessels, six guns; and USD $57,200 in the possession of drug traffickers.

In 2009, C130 aircraft flew 621 hours, 130 missions, 634 sorties, transporting 3572 passengers and 1,062,133 pounds of cargo in support of CN operations, as well as in-country logistics and overseas cargo missions supporting all NAS-funded projects.

NAS-provided project vehicles provide needed assistance to the GOB to support the GOB's eradication program. Any increase in eradication effort in the Yungas, however, would require additional infrastructure improvement, deployment of additional light trucks appropriate to the terrain in that area, as well as additional equipment, e.g., field kitchens, generators, etc. Similarly, a major eradication initiative focused on National Parks would probably require a reconfiguration of resources, such as greater reliance on helicopters, as these areas are less accessible via road.

LEDP



As a direct result of the NAS TIP project, the statistics for the La Paz TIP Prosecutors office increased in 2009 to 173 cases compared to 34 cases in 2008, 19 cases in 2007 and 7 cases in 2006. These same increases can be documented in the other three TIP special investigative/ prosecution offices that NAS supports in Santa Cruz, Cochabamba & El Alto. Additionally, in the area of financial investigation, the specialized training provided by NAS to police and prosecutors was a contributing factor in the first successful criminal conviction of a money laundering case in Bolivia.

Uniforms and Field Gear

NAS issues uniforms and equipment to JTF, FELCN and UMOPAR personnel and other NAS-supported projects on a regular basis. NAS has an indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity (ID/IQ) contract to ensure timely delivery of uniforms for issue. This contract concluded in March 2009 and has not been renewed as of yet. Until such time as the contract is renewed, requests are being entered on a case by case basis for each project. In 2009, the NAS received approximately 27,000 sets of Battle Dress Uniforms (BDU). All pending requests of BDUs were cancelled and will not be purchased in CY 2010. Some of the other items received through the ID/IQ contract included, but were not limited to: boots, hats, and such field gear as web belts, field packs, hammocks, tents, and entrenching tools. Total value of these items was more than $2.5 million USD and supported 2600 project personnel, including FELCN police officers, UMOPAR, BKDTF, BDTF, and the RDTF as well as 3000 military personnel assigned to eradication.

Problems and Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

Unmonitored Resources

As stated above, weapons that were provided by the USMILGRP to Bolivian CN units are not inventoried by NAS. The GOB is solely responsible to provide statistics on those resources. The current political situation has made contact with Bolivian authorities more difficult, especially following the expulsion of DEA and the distancing of Bolivian military and police units from the U.S. Embassy; however, NAS-supported police internal affairs investigators continue to help ensure accountability of weapons for police CN interdiction programs.

At the BDTF, there are no NAS employees physically present. The EUM package post is testing at the BDTF (par. 1.B.) has partially resolved problems with end use monitoring of items there; however, as it is dependent on the BDTF itself to provide information as to where the provided spare parts were used, a follow up has to be a "spot check" in order to physically verify end use. Post continues to evaluate this commercial EUM system for use in other projects. Additionally, the implementation of FAT is ongoing and will significantly enhance our ability to track the issuance of items to host nation entities.

The Food Service contract which supports primarily the eradication JTF provides food for up to 1600 individuals at up to 20 bases and mobile camps throughout the country. Many of these locations are difficult to access and some can be reached only via helicopter. It is not possible to monitor the quality and quantity of product provided.



Repair and Maintenance of Commodities

Due to the large number of vehicles that need to be maintained and serviced, the limited number of mechanics and the increasing difficulty in obtaining parts, delays do occur in repairing and maintaining vehicles. The National Motorpool Supervisor and Regional Directors have implemented a number of quality controls, procurement, and maintenance/repair procedures and policies to address this issue. Maintenance personnel from Cochabamba and Chimore assist by coming to La Paz, and we also transport motorcycles from La Paz to Cochabamba for repairs. Post also transferred a mechanic position to La Paz from Cochabamba. This has reduced the backlog in vehicles waiting repair. However, with a constant operational tempo and an aging fleet, post anticipates chronic difficulties in obtaining critical parts for more of the project vehicles, as well as increasing demand for repair services per mile of operation. The production data for each location is monitored regularly. At the GDTF, maintenance of military vehicles has been hindered by the lack of updated U.S. Army Technical Manuals (TM). TMs are now being requested from the U.S. Army Publishing Agency and are being distributed to the GDTF. In the area of communications, the systems that we have been using are based on QUANTAR Motorola digital repeaters as well as some MSF 5000 analog repeaters. Those analog repeaters are no longer being manufactured and parts are not available. Consequently, post provides and uses digital transmission systems with repeaters manufactured and programmed to support both analog and digital features.

Lack of Use and Misuse of Commodities

Misuse of vehicles continues to be a problem. As corrective actions, post has required timely reporting of vehicle incidents; however, as the GOB has taken over much of the economic incentive payments that NAS was paying in the past, we have less ability to implement punitive measures against project personnel who misuse project vehicles. Previously, post could suspend incentive payments. The NAS is working to implement standard operating procedures to better enforce control over the management of project vehicles.

Disposal of Commodities

Auctions of non-expendable property are conducted as authorized. The NAS conducted an auction in March 2009 that yielded $87,535.57. No significant problems are reported.

Other

In an effort to continuously improve management tools, the NAS worked to improve the NIS by completing new budget and financial modules. NIS can now produce various reports that can be exported to compare against official Regional Financial Management System (RFMS) data. The possibility to record in NIS the transactions that were pending (refunds, overpayments, etc) allows the system to be complete so it can now generate reports that were in the past generated manually after a tedious and time consuming manual data entry process. NIS is now a tool that can be used to generate different types of reports that can be utilized by upper management to assess status of funds as well as to help plan for budgeting and provision of goods to projects. The NAS is now in the process of developing a new web-based NIS that would allow access from the Internet. Development has just started and is expected.

U.S. Department of State, 2008

Document: 2008 End-Use Monitoring Report

Program: International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement

LA PAZ

Background

EUM Program Coordinator
Rosalyn Anderson, Tel: 591-278-4811 ext. 3217

Inventory System
NAS La Paz maintains a comprehensive inventory under the NEPA system that identifies the location and the accountable personnel for the items issued at each organization.

In conjunction with the NAS, the Logistics Section of the Bolivian Special Force For the Fight Against Narcotics Trafficking (FELCN) developed an End Use Monitoring (EUM) software package in Access called the Sistma de Administration de Material (SAM), which assists as the end user track system for items issued by the NAS. These records are compared with Property Management Units records for cross-reference. The software was developed in 2006. Implementation and training were carried out on a nationwide basis throughout 2007 and 2008. Currently, the NAS and FELCN are in the process of visiting sites to determine the performance of the system.

In addition, once the FAT (Fast Asset Tracking) mobile is implemented, nonexpendable items will be updated and available for any authorized use.

Staff Member EUM Responsibilities

As of the end of 2008, the NAS La Paz staff consisted of four U.S. direct hires and three U.S. Personal Services Contractors (PSCs). There are four U.S. PSC positions in Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, with one position filled in January 2009 for the Red Devils Task Force (RDTF) in Santa Cruz and one additional open position. These staff positions supervise and monitor all procurement, warehousing, personnel, communications, transportation and other administrative and budgetary requirements related to NAS-funded projects.

NAS Project Officers, NAS Regional Directorates in Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, and the NAS Resources Control Staff assist the NAS Management Officer in the EUM preparation. The Logistics Section of the FELCN is the most developed logistics entity within the GOB and assists in EUM for interdiction programs.

US Direct Hires Project Officers require adequate justification and strict accountability prior to initiating new procurement actions. NAS staff members and officials of other agencies and offices, principally DEA, USMILGP, USAID, and INL Air Wing, conduct regular reviews to account for and verify the condition and use of the equipment and property provided by the USG to the USG-GOB counter-narcotics program. NAS Project Officers, Regional Directors and the Management Officer conduct regular announced and unannounced field visits to all projects, and maintain frequent contact with project personnel. NAS Budget and Resources Control staff conduct spot inspections of property records, imprest funds record keeping, and vehicle/fuel usage reports. Fuel consumption reports countrywide are consolidated and reviewed by the NAS/Bolivia Resources Control Unit on a monthly basis.

NAS Project Assistants are responsible for EUM of all items issued to the NAS supported projects. These items include, but are not limited to, office supplies, cleaning supplies, military equipment and non-expendable items. Each project assistant is provided with a copy of the EUM inventory sheets for their respective projects so that they may perform spot checks of inventory when visiting project sites.

The Aviation Advisor regularly reports on the operational status of all NAS- supported aviation assets to the NAS Director and Deputy Director. The NAS aviation contract personnel participate in inventory management and property oversight.

NAS Motor pool personnel in the regional offices conduct unannounced checks of vehicles two or three months after a charge of pilferable items (e.g. batteries, voltage regulators, etc.) to ensure that they were not removed from the vehicles by project personnel and replaced with older ones. This practice has proven to be effective in discouraging pilferage.

Other personnel involved in the physical control of USG and GOB property (Property Custodial Offices) include the Supply Supervisor, Program Coordinators and Assistant, Warehouse Supervisors and Supply Clerks. Custodial office responsibilities include the physical control of USG and GOB property within the designated area of responsibility, including (1) signing, receiving, and inspecting accountable property on behalf of the USG as defined in 14 FAM 413.3; (2) custody, care, and safekeeping of all accountable property; (3) periodically completing and reconciling a physical inventory; (4) completing required reports as outlined in the NAS procedures; (5) supervising and training personnel assigned property management duties; (6) preparing survey reports documenting inventory shortages or damages for the accountable property officer;and (7) implementing NAS property management policies and management directives.

Under the supervision of the accountable Property Office, Area Custodial Offices are required to take a 100% inventory annually and submit results for consolidation between October 1 and January 30. If there are any major problems/discrepancies, these are reviewed during February and the report is submitted to A/LM prior to March 15 of that year.

Bi-annual inventories of selected high dollar value and sensitive items are conducted by regional warehouse personnel covering the projects within their region.

The Accountable Property Office (APO) and Resources Control personnel perform on-site inspections. However, Program Officers, Assistants and Regional Directors, as well as other managers and upper management, are encouraged to carry out these types of inspections.

The Property Management Officer and Accountable Property Officer are responsible for implementing monitoring procedures. The receiving agent is responsible for the receipt and inspections of all property and the preparation and distribution of receiving reports. The Property Disposal Officers and NAS Program Officers oversee disposal of material.

Other USG Agency Assistance
Officials of other agencies (including DEA, USMILGP, and USAID) assist the NAS Management Officer in End Use Monitoring. AID/EXO provides Customs clearance services under ICASS for Bolivia. In cases of possible fraud, the RSO is involved.

Counterpart Agencies
Agricultural Reconversion (DIRECO/DIGPROCOCA)
Air Force Black Devil Task Force (BKDTF)
Air Force Red Devil Task Force (RDTF)
Anti-Narcotics Training Center (GARRAS del Valor)
Bolivian Army Transportation Battalion Green Devil Task Force (GDTF)
Chemical Investigations Group (GISUQ)
Directorate of Seized Assets of the Bolivian National Police (DIRCABI)
Drug Detection Canine Unit (K-9)
Ecological Police (ECOPOL)
Economic & Financial Investigations & Analysis Group (GIAFF)
Financial Investigation Unit of the Bolivian National Police (FIU)
Joint Task Force (JTF)
Law /Enforcement Training and Development Program (LETDP) for the Bolivian National Police
Mobile Rural Patrol Unit (UMOPAR)
National Council for the Fight Against Illicit Drugs (CONALTID)
Navy Blue Devil Task Force (BDTF)
Office of Professional Responsibility of the Bolivian National Police Prosecutors Program (Fiscal)
Special Force for the Fight Against Narcotics Trafficking (FELCN)
Special Group for the Coca Leaf Control (GECC)
Special Intelligence and Operations Group (GIOE)
Special Operations Force (FOE)
Trafficking in Persons Offices of the Bolivian National Police (TIPS)
Vice Ministry for Social Defense (GOB)

Receipt
Procedures used to document the provision of items provided to agencies are as follows: All inter-agency transfers are documented using Form DS-584. Provisions to host nation-supported projects are documented on the OF-127 or DS-127. Receipts generated from the Property Management Section using the National Integrated System (NIS) are signed at the time of delivery by\the end-user.

Monitoring Procedures

On-Site Inspections
On-site inspections were performed in 77 sites and cities.There are about 11,000 donated items subject to inspection nationwide valued at over $10 million. About 50% of the items were inspected throughout the year in addition to personally carrying out preventive and corrective maintenance.

Status-Commodities

Aviation
Under the Black Devils Task Force (BlkDTF), three C-130B transport planes ferry cargo to and from the United States, as well as personnel and cargo within Bolivia. NAS/Bolivia projects also include two light, fixed-wing aircraft and ten helicopters, maintained under the Red Devils Task Force (RDTF) program.

The NAS-supported BlkDTF, under the supervision of a US PSC Aviation Advisor, flies three C-130B's that were transferred to the GOB through DOD Excess Defense Articles (EDA) program. The BlkDTF consists of six FAB pilots, copilots, flight engineers and navigators, in addition to 35 enlisted maintenance personnel.

The BlkDTF is also supported by four Third Country National (TCN) contract mechanics in La Paz that provide quality assurance and supervision for Bolivian Air Force mechanics. One NAS FSN provides logistics support and manages the C-130B warehouse operation, thus guaranteeing accountability for C-130B parts and equipment. The US PSC Aviation Adviser, the NAS Deputy Director,and the Director approve all routine and operational missions and expenditures for the BlkDTF project.

Bolivian Air Force (FAB) personnel assigned to the Red Devil Task Force (RDTF) operate the INL/NAS supported aviation assets controlled by this project. RTBF is comprised of about 159 Bolivian Air Force personnel. They are assisted by 18 DynCorp International contactor personnel in the areas of aircraft maintenance, operational standardization, safety and information technology. Fourteen NAS Foreign Service Nationals and a U.S. Personal Services Contractor (PSC) provide oversight and End Use Monitoring of NAS and INL resources.

The RDTF operates a fleet of 10 Bell UH- 1H helicopters, and two Cessna 206's. The operation, employment, and maintenance of the aircraft, as well as the aircrew and mechanic training, are conducted under the regulatory guidance of the Department of State INL Air Wing located at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida. The helicopters are the property of the USG; the airplanes belong to the GOB. The primary base of operations is located in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, at El Trompillo Airport. The RDTF operates out of two permanent Forward Operating Locations (FOLS) located in Chimore and Trinidad.

DynCorp provides maintenance and logistical support, technical expertise, and oversight directly to the RDTF personnel with additional training support provided through USMILGP. The fixed-wing aircraft maintenance program is now mostly managed by the Government of Bolivia.

Operational control of the aircraft resides with the NAS Director in Bolivia and is exercised through an RDTF Senior Aviation Advisor, who is one of two PSC advisers. Both PSCs are accountable to the NAS Director and provide oversight of NAS-provided commodities to ensure they are used extensively for the NAS- funded/authorized activities. Only the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Mission, or the NAS director can authorize non-routine missions.

Additionally, oversight of INL resources, as well as contractor logistical support contract compliance is provided by the Senior Aviation and Maintenance Advisors.

Aircraft status is tracked continually through daily reports and a weekly report of flying operations and maintenance status provided by the Senior Aviation Adviser to the NAS Director. Aviation Resource Management inspections, all aspects of flying operations-training, and operations and maintenance are thoroughly reviewed. Early in 2008, significant corrosion was discovered on the majority of the fleet aircraft. As a result, the fleet was entirely grounded until repairs could be made. The RDTF is currently back to nine "Fully Mission Capable" aircraft. The expectations are to have ten fully capable aircraft by the beginning of April 2009.

RDTF
UH-1H
10
Cessna
2

BKDTF
C-130B2
3

Vehicles

The NAS maintains more than 1,554 vehicles, including GDTF vehicles, of
which 305 are over 10 years old.

Bolivian Army Transportation Battalion
The NAS-supported Green Devils Task Force (GDTF) operates and shares a military post with a logistics battalion in Santa Cruz. The GDTF's primary mission is to support NAS-funded activities by transporting fuel, cargo and personnel anywhere in Bolivia via ground. Its secondary mission is to train Bolivian Army personnel in conducting all levels of specialized vehicle maintenance, warehousing operations, and operation of heavy US military vehicles. Currently, there are 119 vehicles in the GDTF of which 107 are military vehicles acquired through Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program managed by the USMILGP. The GDTF manages all of these military vehicles. The GDTF vehicle fleet consists of 58 two and a half ton trucks, two M49 two and a half ton fuel trucks, 23 HMMWV'S, four HMMWV ambulances, eight five-ton dump trucks, three five-ton tractors, two 5-ton wreckers, two forty-ton tractors, two contact trucks, three International Harvester fuel trucks, two fuel tankers (5,000 gallons), two 12-ton semi-trailers, one (40-ton) semi-trailer low-bed, four water trailers, one Hyster fork lift (with a capacity of 6,000 pounds), two petty bone fork lists, and seven NAS project vehicles.

One hundred twenty-five Bolivian Army personnel, commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel, staff the GDTF. Also, a total of nine NAS FSN personnel (supervised by one US PSC) are responsible for ensuring operational readiness. In 2008, the average operational readiness posture was maintained at 98%.

The GDTF US military fleet is maintained according to the US Army Maintenance Standards to include annual, semiannual services. The current condition and daily usage of the 107 specialized vehicles at post are "Mission Capable" at 98% operability.

The repair parts inventory is managed using an US Army Supply inventory and control computer program with slight modifications.

All other project vehicles are maintained through one of the eight major full service motor pool facilities, NAS-operated remote service areas, and designated approved outside service facilities (contractors). All vehicles are identified and evaluated when they arrive for fuel, service maintenance or repair. If a vehicle arrives in poor condition, the motor pool requires official reports from the responsible employee describing the vehicle's condition and/or incident.

ANDEAN/FOE
Trucks
1
SUV
5
Pickup
4

Vessels
The NAS-supported Blue Devil Task Force (BDTF) is a 140-person Riverine unit of the Bolivian Navy organized into six task groups, with a headquarters and Riverine Training School in Trinidad. The BDTF groups are located at Trinidad, Riberalta, Guayaramerin, La Horquilla, Cobija, and Puerto Villaroel. The NAS Regional Office in Trinidad supports the BDTF headquarters, the Riverine School, and all task groups (except for the group in Puerto Villaroel, which is supported by NAS/Chimore). The BDTF has three mother ships, 33 Boston Whaler-type patrol boats, and 50 Zodiacs (of which only 27 are currently operable, largely due to age). These boats were transferred to the Bolivian Navy via FMF funding or constructed (in the case of mother ships) with INL funding. The NAS will reduce the scale of the program in 2009 to accommodate a limited operating budget but will continue to provide parts and supplies to maintain the operational readiness of the Task Force.

BDTF
Mother ships
3
Boston Whalers
33
Zodiacs
50

Weapons
The FELCN currently has a total of 1,056 M-16s, 615 Berettas, 4 M-249s, 280 M-4s, 11 M-60s, 23 M-60s, 183 Mossberg shotguns, 88 M-79s, and 43 M-203s in its inventory, donated in prior years by USMILGP. FELCN maintains a computerized inventory of these weapons. Due to tensions between the police and military, it is no longer feasible to store FELCN weapons at the Ingavi Army base. The majority of FELCN weapons have been transferred to alternate locations until a proper arms warehouse can be constructed on FELCN property. The NAS does not provide any lethal assistance to Bolivian police or military units. Two Beretta pistols were seized by GOB police units during a forced inspection of SIU units in Santa Cruz in November 2008. The FELCN has requested that the weapons be returned.
The BDTF weapons include 80 M-16s (3 operable, 1 missing) 51 M-60s (11 inoperable, 1 missing), 118 M-9's (1 inoperable, 2 missing), 27 Cassesas (11 inoperable, 1 missing), 3 Sig 510s (1 inoperable, 1 missing). All arms reported as missing were lost or stolen prior to 2001. No arms were reported as missing in 2008.

FELCN
M-16
1,056
Barettas
615
M-249
4
M-4
280
M-60
11
Mossberg shotguns
183
M-79
88
M-203
43

BDTF
M-16
80
M-60
51
M-249
4
M-9
118
Cassesa
27
Sig 510
3

Computer Equipment
The NAS provided 420 pieces of computer equipment, 50 printers, 56 scanners, 583 notebooks, 27 canopy antennas, 3 new Dell servers, 6 Cisco switches, 8 Nortel connectivity firewalls, 6 fiber optic transceivers, 2 VOIP central phone systems including one BCM 400 and one BCM 50, 3 copier machines, and other devices to the NAS and GOB agencies participating in the NAS-funded activities.
The NAS currently maintains about 4,041 pieces of computer equipment (CPU, monitors, printers, scanners, laptops, and projectors) and 15 servers (13 for NASBOL, two for FOE) at its offices and project sites. The canopy antennas were installed in two offices of the FELCN and two regional offices of the NAS to improve the internet and data transfer.
A total of 112 pieces of computer equipment (CPU, monitors, printers, scanners, laptops) were disposed of in 2008.

Canine Program
There are 78 working K-9's in Bolivia, of which 5 are for the detection of explosives. At the present time, the program has 96 adult K-9's and 33 K-9 puppies (3-9 months old) that are in different stages of training. The program currently supports 78 guide dog teams assigned to various FELCN posts, which is half the ideal number but near the maximum that can be sustained with current program support and DEA/FELCN operational priorities. The NAS supports FELCN's canine training center (NAS and DEA-funded)

in El Paso, near the city of Cochabamba, as well as a recently completed training center in La Paz. In 2008, the NAS reinitiated the FELCN breeding program and does not expect to purchase puppies in 2009. Puppies that don't respond to training and retired K-9s are put up for adoption. The NAS provides 100% of all support to the K-9 program.

Uniforms and Field Gear
The NAS issues uniforms and equipment to the JTF, FELCN and Umopar personnel and all other NAS-supported projects on a regular basis. The NAS has contracted for an IDIQ contract to assure itself of timely delivery of uniforms for issue. In 2008, the NAS procured about 16,000 sets of BDU's boots, hats and such field gear as web belts, field packs, hammocks, tents and entrenching tools in support of 1,600 FELCN police officers and 2,200 military personnel assigned to various CN projects including eradication.

Status-Services

Construction Projects
An inspection of the following construction projects completed in 2008 was completed.

NAS Trinidad Offices and Warehouse
Rehabilitation Center
Sanitary system-second phase
New Dormitories and offices RDTF
Canine facilities el Alto Airport
Bulo bulo checkpoint enlargement
Prosecutor house protection
Training Center protection against Huaricully River El Paso
Bermejo kennels and storage areas
Maintenance works for Umopar simulator at BNP
Irpavi II Rehabilitation center
Suapi architectural designs
Motor pool renovation
UMOPAR Rrinconada electrical three-phase line extension
Green Devils Task Force repairs

The NAS Construction Section also completed 946 infrastructure maintenance requirements nationally as follows using FSN maintenance technicians and outside contractors.
La Paz, Yungas 28
Cochabamba 174
Chimore 664
Santa Cruz 80

Demand Reduction Services
In 2008, NAS supported 12 demand reduction programs in addition to various other activities. The DARE (Drug Abuse and Awareness Educational) program supports public awareness campaigns that stress the threat of domestic drug consumption. The program also works with NGO's and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNDOC) to develop a drug prevention program in the teacher colleges. The DARE program reached 22,000 students in 2008. The NAS is expanding DARE to include more grade school levels. The NAS also funded periodic independent studies to determine drug consumption and public attitudes in Bolivia to develop the appropriate context for Embassy strategies.

The NAS conducted twelve civic action events in the three regions of Beni, Tarija, and Chuquisaca in 2008. The goal was to teach about 9,000 children and youths from low income families and those most vulnerable to drug trafficking of the ill effects of drug consumption combined with basic health prevention (basic hygiene, dental, etc). The NAS distributed dental kits, vitamins, food, music and sports equipment, among other items.

Other Professional Services
The NAS treats medical emergencies of both staff and project personnel, such as bullet wounds, snake bites, tropical disease (such as salmonella), multiple traumas, and general contusions caused by different types of accidents (vehicles, work-related, etc). The medical supplies and medicines totaled about $170,000 for the year including wheelchairs, stretchers, oxygen, minor surgical equipment, antibiotics.

Two X-ray machines donated to the UMOPAR project are located at the Sana Cruz and Cochabamba airports. One X-ray machine is located in Chimore for the FELCN project. All equipment is in good working condition.
The NAS provided food service to various branches of the Bolivian Armed Forces, National Police and civilian personnel in the field for 2008. Food services for the year totaled over $3 million and consisted of food supplies, preparation and delivery.

Program Impact

Eradication in the Cochabambo (Once Bolivia's principal region for the cultivation of illegal coca and the production of cocaine) is essential for any realistic Bolivian CN strategy. Successive Bolivian Governments have been unable to move beyond the planning stages for controlling coca cultivation in the Yungas. The GOB eradicated 5,484 hectares of coca cultivation in the entire country in 2008, which was a 13% decrease from 2007. Overall, in 2008, coca cultivation increased to 32,000 hectares, while potential cocaine production increased dramatically to 195 metric tons (MT).

In 2008, the FELCN seized 2,066 MT of coca leaf, 28.8 MTs of cocaine hydrochloride and cocaine/base as well as 1,383,596 liters of liquid precursor chemicals (acetone, diesel, ether, etc) and 440.7 MTs of solid precursor chemicals (sulfuric acid, bicarbonate of soda, etc.). FELCN also destroyed 4,988 cocaine base labs and made 3,525 drug- related arrests.

The NAS continues to adequately equip and support more than 1,500 police agents working in counter-narcotics. The NAS will maintain the capacity of FELCN and other police units to combat drug trafficking and other crimes such as Trafficking-in-Persons. The expulsion of DEA from Bolivia seriously damaged the ability of the FELCN to identify and dismantle drug trafficking organizations and conduct intelligence-based operations.

Communications Equipment
NAS-provided equipment enabled efficient and effective communications within the various projects and between the projects and NAS project management personnel. Due to the remote nature of the work in Bolivia, reliable equipment is essential and has also assisted in medical emergencies.

Weapons
Bolivia has strict laws regulating the use of weapons by GOB personnel. Weapons are only used in self-defense and as a deterrent. Weapons provided by the USG enhanced the security of Bolivian CN units allowing them to conduct interdiction and eradication operations in hostile territory.

Construction Projects
NAS construction engineers/architects advise, design and provide oversight during all phases of construction projects related to NAS-funded activities. The engineers are also responsible for executing projects by direct administration. The impact of the construction projects has brought living and working conditions to counternarcotics personnel in remote places of Bolivia to a better standard, creating an environment whereby greater efficiency and effectiveness is being achieved.

Vessels
The vessels donated to the BDTF support interdiction across the country's extensive river system and provide the means necessary to collect actionable intelligence.

Laboratory Equipment
The NAS purchased laboratory supplies for FELCN laboratories which rely on manual techniques. The three X-ray machines and some expendable supplies, including reagents and glass flasks are used in detecting narcotics at the various airports. In 2007, there were 68 operations in the Cochabamba airport with 161 grams of cocaine and 880 grams of marijuana seized. Due to personnel rotations, 2008 figures are not available at this time.

Aircraft
The C-130s fly in-country missions to support DEA and UMOPAR counternarcotics operations as well as in-country logistics and overseas cargo missions in support of all NAS-funded projects. In 2008, the C-130's flew 123 missions, 529 sorties, transported 1,207,899 lbs of cargo, and 4,295 passengers in support of counternarcotics operations.

Vehicles
The NAS is providing needed assistance to the GOB to eradicate all coca in the National Parks and move an increasing number of resources to the Yungas, where over two-thirds of all Bolivian coca is grown. Work in the Yungas will require greater support in vehicles, smaller eradication camps, food service provisions, boots, tents, all under very difficult and extenuating physical conditions and terrible road infrastructure.

Problems and Corrective Action Plan

Unmonitored Resources

Weapons Accountability
Accountability and safeguarding of weapons is a continuing concern. With the current political situation, contact with the Bolivian military and police has become more difficult. However, USMILGP continues to work with the Bolivian Army to ensure 100% accountability. The expulsion of DEA and the potential distancing of Bolivian Police Units from the U.S. Embassy could make weapons accountability a serious issue in the near future. For police counternarcotics interdiction programs, increased vigilance by NAS-supported Police Internal Affairs Investigators has helped reduce the number of losses and/or thefts of weapons reported.

Property Accountability
It remains difficult to track equipment and defense articles issued to projects. For NAS-issued property, the F ELCN's record- keeping system and procedures are not sophisticated enough to consistently track property from unit to unit and through special operations. Troops only check, fix, and account for those items that they know their commander is interested in. The NAS Property Management Unit, in conjunction with FELCN Logistics Section (S-4), completed development of and started using an EUM module. This will help tracking of NAS as well as the agency-provided expendable and non- expendable supplies from the units to the end user. The NAS continues to support FELCN logistics by keeping parallel records, using the NEPA property accountability system, and extensive warehouse facilities. The NAS will assist FELCN in establishing a permanent arms storage and maintenance facility to provide better accountability and safeguarding of weapons.

NAS Bolivia operates eight warehouses in these locations: two in La Paz, one in Cochabamba, two in the Chimore area, two in Santa Cruz, and one in Trinidad. Additionally, there are GOB warehouses supervised by PSC's and FSN's, one at headquarters of Devils Task Force (GDTF), one at the Red Devils Task Force (RDTF) in Santa Cruz, and one at the Black Devils Task Force (BLKDTF) in La Paz. There is an additional GOB warehouse in Trinidad (Blue Devil Task Force), which is not supervised by USG hired personnel. This management shortfall will be resolved by moving stock items to the soon-to-be-completed NAS-controlled warehouse in Trinidad. The resolution of this management shortfall was attempted last fiscal year. However, the Mocovi facility delivery was substantially delayed and by the time the installation was ready, the relations between GOB and USG were in such a delicate state that this transfer could not be implemented. Even now, BDTF personnel do not wish to turn over items for final disposal that they no longer require (boat spare parts). This will be re-visited and resolved by the Regional Director, in conjunction with NAS upper management.

Repair and Maintenance of Commodities
Due to the large number of vehicles that need to be maintained every 5,000 kms (per standard procedures) and the limited number of mechanics, delays can occur in repairing and maintaining vehicles. The standard mileage for regular maintenance is being raised to 8,000 kms and the NAS National Motorpool Supervisor has implemented many quality controls and policies and procedures to address this issue. The figures per location are being monitored weekly.

Lack of Use and Misuse of Commodities
Personal use of vehicles by GOB officials and its careless operation continue to be a problem, but serious accidents and misuse have declined significantly. This is largely due to increased investigations and disciplinary sanctions by the police internal affairs investigators of the NAS-supported FELCN Office of Professional Responsibility.

The NAS continues to assist FELCN by supporting continued training on proper operations of vehicles, as well as holding program participants accountable. In 2008, the NAS/FELCN implemented driver's training programs. NAS Regional Directors and other NAS staff also continue unannounced checks of recently maintained vehicles in search of auto parts theft. With regard to fuel accountability and safety, and in line with NAS efforts to achieve certification in ISO 9000 procedures, checks and balances have been implemented at all NAS sites.

Management
NAS Bolivia continues making refinements in its National Integrated System (NIS) which integrates most of the NAS administrative functions throughout Bolivia through the NASBOL Wide Area Network. It has evolved into a key tool in the internal control and accountability system. A planned major update for the system would enable the NIS accountability information to match figures in the Department's RFMS. The new feature would bypass the manual data entry now required to coordinate information from the two systems and provide accurate, current figures to senior management.

A number of offices have been trained in the concept of ISO 9000, but the NAS was forced to postpone seeking certification while implementing recommendations from the 2007 INL MAV report and preparing for the 2008 OIG embassy inspection. Most of the FSN/PSA employees have already received some training and efforts have been resumed to fully implement ISO 9000 processes in the first half of 2009, subject to funds availability.

Department of State, 2009

Document: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report

Program: International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement

U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs Policy Initiatives. USG programs aim to enhance the capabilities of the GOB to reduce coca cultivation; arrest and bring drug traffickers to justice; promote alternative economic development; disrupt the production of cocaine within Bolivia; interdict and destroy illicit drugs and precursor chemicals moving within and through the country; reduce domestic abuse of cocaine and other illicit drugs; institutionalize a professional law enforcement system; and improve the awareness of the Bolivian population regarding the dangers of illicit drugs. The USG also provides logistics support that enables training for BNP officers in modern money laundering and terrorism financing investigative techniques, and on trafficking in persons (TIP) and human rights. Bilateral Cooperation. Bilateral cooperation continued to be challenging in 2009. However, Bolivian and U.S. officials meet regularly to implement programs and to advance common issues of concern. In February 2009, the GOB advised the USG that U.S.-sponsored training for military and police personnel outside of the country would no longer be supported by the GOB and that any future training nominations would be directed to the respective unit commanders for initial approval. These nominations would then be forwarded to the Minister of Government and President for their respective approvals. This new policy has serious detrimental effects on the continued development and professionalism of the national police and military forces, due to their inability to attend U.S. sponsored training courses, especially management courses. Despite this setback, the USG supported a number of GOB institutional developmental projects, including a basic and advanced law enforcement training program. In 2009, the Law Enforcement Development Program supported sixty-two (62) training courses, seminars and/or conferences that have reached 5,600 police officers, prosecutors, and GOB and non-government organization counterparts. The USG provided administrative support to four special BNP TIP investigative units consisting of 28 police officers and 12 full time prosecutors in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and Cochabamba.

U.S. Department of State, 2010

Document: Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Program and Budget Guide, Fiscal Year 2010

Program: International Narcotics Control Economic Aid

FY 2010 Program Demand Reduction The ministerial-level National Drug Control Council (CONALTID) is the GOB?s central policy making body for counternarcotics. The Vice Ministry of Social Defense and the Vice Ministry of Coca and Integrated Development are the primary implementers of these policies. This project supports the operations of these entities, by providing technical advice, equipment, training, and other support as appropriate. Drug prevention activities focus principally on enabling civil society through training and other interventions to provide demand reduction education, basic rehabilitation, diagnostic, and other services the public sector remains incapable of delivering. The project supports the Drug Abuse Resistance Education program (DARE), which will seek to reach 40,000 middle school students in a broad base of cities. FY 2010 assistance will support media outreach programs, demand education training in all teacher?s universities, innovative departmental demand reduction programs such as training in drug abuse prevention, and specific programs targeting marginalized sectors of Bolivian society. This project also has a public affairs component that promotes U.S. interests on drug issues, provides accurate information on counternarcotics questions and policies to the media, enhances the professionalism of the media (especially on drug-related themes) and helps generate information useful to the U.S. FY 2010 assistance will support national awareness programs, journalists, workshops, and a toll-free telephone hotline.

U.S. Department of State, 2010

Document: Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Program and Budget Guide, Fiscal Year 2010

Program: International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement

FY 2010 Program Interdiction These funds will be used to support FELCN, a Bolivian National Police (BNP) entity with approximately 1,600 officers. FELCN consists of a command staff and rural patrol units (UMOPAR), in addition to specialized police groups: a canine drug detection unit (K-9), and the Special Operations Force (FOE). The FOE has close to 500 officers and includes an economic and financial investigations unit (GIAEF), a special intelligence and operations group (GIOE), and a precursor chemical investigations unit (GISUQ). The FOE provides coordination for counternarcotics operations. The Garras del Valor School is an academy for training new counternarcotics personnel. Its curriculum includes basic criminal investigation procedures, introduction to the Bolivian criminal and legal system, human rights, and jungle survival skills. The Garras School also serves as a regional training center for counternarcotics police from other Latin American countries, thereby promoting regional integration. The Counternarcotics Prosecutor program supports 127 counternarcotics prosecutors and legal assistants who direct investigation undertaken by FELCN elements. Funding will be used to expand the prosecutor program and to increase efficiencies in the prosecution of narcotics related cases. Funding will also assist Bolivia?s financial intelligence unit and resources and strengthen the relationships and cooperation among government entities involved in fighting money laundering and other financial crimes. With FY 2010 funds, the USG will support interdiction personnel with field equipment and maintenance costs, food (MREs), medical supplies, and office rental and other costs. Funding will provide incentives for the prosecutor program and the anti-narcotics training center, stipends, travel and per diem, and ensure that all interdiction forces have required communications capabilities and transportation to be effective. Eradication The Joint Eradication Task Force (JTF) consists of approximately 1,600 military, police, and civilian personnel with separate units conducting eradication and providing force protection in two coca producing zones. The Directorate General for Integral Development of Coca Producing Regions (DIGPROCOCA) supervises the destruction and rationalization of illegal coca crops and verifies eradication by measuring and inventorying the fields before and after eradication takes place. The National Police provide perimeter security for the JTF, while the Ecological Police (ECOPOL) locate and prepare coca fields and coca seedbeds to eradicate. The JTF military does the actual eradication of the coca plants. Budget allotments for FY 2010 reflect our concern over limited cooperation and political will from the GOB on eradication and on limiting new crops. Funding is primarily directed towards eradication support for operations the GOB is willing to undertake, such as in the national parks. FY 2010 assistance will continue to provide necessary infrastructure and logistical support, including gas, utilities, equipment, medical/hygienic supplies, medical care, vehicle support and maintenance, tents, cooking equipment, and aviation support. Operational/Logistical Support U.S. counternarcotics projects in Bolivia rely on a logistical network consisting of airplanes, boats, land vehicles, helicopters, and a decentralized warehousing and supply system. This support enables eradication and interdiction to operate effectively in the challenging conditions that exist throughout Bolivia. FY 2010 Operational/Logistical Support will provide the GOB with technical advice, equipment, and training for the Green Devil Task Force (GDTF), the Blue Devil Task Force (BDTF), and Field Support (INFRA). GDTF is a unit of 125 Bolivian Army personnel with a fleet of 119 light, medium, and heavy-lift utility and other types of vehicles provided by the U.S. These vehicles furnish 250 FY 2010 INL Program and Budget Guide ground transportation in support of interdiction and eradication operations in two distinct regions. With FY 2010 monies, the U.S. will fund repairs for the aging fleet of vehicles (including motors and spare parts), fuel, and travel costs. BDTF is a special unit of approximately 120 members of the Bolivian Navy that supports interdiction across the country?s extensive river system and collects actionable intelligence. With FY 2010 funds, the project will continue the maintenance and replacement of equipment, including boat motors, Zodiacs, Boston whaler type patrol boats, mother ships and support for a headquarters and Riverine Training School in Trinidad and six task groups located in Trinidad, Riberalta, Guayaramerin, La Horquilla, Cobija, and Puerto Villaroel. INFRA provides operating expenses for counternarcotics facilities located in Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Trinidad, and Chimore (including field offices, procurement, accounting, and vehicle maintenance facilities, and warehouses). This infrastructure provides a common platform for U.S.-supported activities throughout the country. FY 2010 assistance will be applied to administrative and operating expenses not attributable to individual projects, such as personal services contract (PSC) and Foreign Service National (FSN) salaries and benefits, travel, transportation, property rentals, office supplies, phones/utilities, and other contracted services required by U.S. counternarcotics personnel. Aviation This project provides fixed and rotary wing aviation support to GOB eradication and interdiction activities. FY 2010 funding will provide the GOB with technical advice, equipment, and training for the Red Devils Task Force (RDTF) and Black Devils Task Force (BlkDTF). Air mobility is an absolute necessity for the execution of counternarcotics programs in Bolivia. RDTF: The RDTF provides rotary and small fixed wing aviation support for the eradication and interdiction programs. American citizen and third-country national contractors advise and assist the RDTF in the areas of aircraft maintenance, quality control, logistics and training. They also provide day-to-day contract oversight. In FY 2010, the project will provide support for GOB eradication in National Parks and continued limited eradication operations in the Yungas and Chapare. The project operates and maintains ten UH-1H helicopters and two light fixed-wing aircraft through a qualified force of helicopter pilots, fixed-wing pilots, crew chiefs and support technicians. BlkDTF: The BlkDTF consists of six pilots, co-pilots and navigators, and 35 enlisted personnel who provide maintenance support for three C-130 transport aircraft which transport eradication and interdiction personnel and supplies throughout Bolivia and move RDTF and BlkDTF spare aircraft parts, supplies and other project equipment to and from the continental U.S. Support includes maintenance, repairs, spare parts, and required major inspections at U.S. facilities, as well as per diem, uniforms, and other equipment. The incorporation of a refurbished King Air aircraft into BlkDTF air assets in FY 2008 enhanced the GOB's effectiveness in carrying out interdiction and eradication activities. FY 2010 funding will enable the GOB to maintain a trained, reliable medium-lift-capable aviation unit that provides aviation support to counternarcotics projects, with an operational rate of 90 percent of requested missions. Funds will also support an American PSC who provides 251 Western Hemisphere technical assistance; four technicians who supervise maintenance; and a Foreign Service National (FSN) warehouseman who maintains control of the multi-million dollar spare parts inventory. Law Enforcement Development and Training (LETDP) FY 2010 funding will support locally engaged staff, contractor salaries, and incentive payments for the Trafficking-in-Persons Unit. The assistance will sustain the continuation of training and developmental programs for the BNP in key areas, such as investigative skills, forensic sciences, human rights, and trafficking in persons. Other initiatives seek to combat corruption and include such activities as implementing a case tracking system in the Office of Professional Responsibility and supporting a trained cadre of Bolivian police officers who administer all polygraph examinations to counternarcotics project personnel, the investigators of the Office of Professional Responsibility, and other groups as directed by the BNP.

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Grant Aid Table Sources:

  • Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2005; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2005 and 2006: A Report to Congress (Washington: September 2006) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2005; - U.S. Department of Defense, Office of Freedom of Information, Response to FOIA request from the Center for Public Integrity (Washington: July 13, 2006) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Excess Defense Articles 2005; - United States, Department of State, FY 2007 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, February 2006) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2005; - United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, FY 2007 Congressional Budget Justification (Washington: Department of State, April 2006) (Link to source). United States, Department of State, Memorandum of Justification under Section 451 of the Foreign Assistance Act for the Use of Funds or Counterdrug and Law Enforcement Programs in Central America (Washington: Department of State, September 28, 2007) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2006; - United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, FY 2008 Program and Budget Guide (Washington: U.S. Department of State, September 2007) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Aviation Leadership Program 2006; Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2006; Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2006; Bolivia Service Academies 2006; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007: A Report to Congress (Washington: August 2007) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Aviation Leadership Program 2007; Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2007; Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2007; Bolivia Service Academies 2007; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2007 and 2008 (Washington: January 2008) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2007; Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2007; - United States, Department of State, FY 2009 International Affairs (Function 150) Budget Request--Summary and Highlights (Washington: Department of State: February 4, 2008) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Aviation Leadership Program 2008; Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2008; Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2008; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009 (Washington: January 2011) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2008; - United States, Department of State, FY 2010 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, May 2009) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2008; - United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Affairs, Program and Budget Guide 2010 (Washington: Department of State). (Bolivia NADR - Conventional Weapons Destruction 2008; - United States, Department of State, Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, February 2008) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2009; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2009 and 2010 (Washington: February 2011) (Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2009; - United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, International Military Education and Training (IMET) authorized for foreign countries under Part II, Chapter 5, Arms Export Control Act (Washington: January 26, 2010) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2009; - United States, Department of State, Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, Program and Budget Guide, Fiscal Year 2011 Budget (Washington: Department of State: 2010) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2010; - United States, Department of State, FY 2012 Executive Budget Summary Function 150 and Other International Programs (Washington: Department of State, February 2011) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2010; - United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Affairs, Program and Budget Guide 2012 (Washington: Department of State, 2011) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia ; - Clare Ribando Seelke, Liana Sun Wyler, June S. Beittel, Mark P. Sullivan, 'Latin America and the Caribbean: Illicit Drug Trafficking and U.S. Counterdrug Programs' (Washington: U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, May 12, 2011): 33-4 (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2010; Bolivia Service Academies 2010; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2010 and 2011 (Washington: February 2012) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2011; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2011 and 2012 (Washington: December 2012) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2011; - United States, Department of State, FY 2013 Executive Budget Summary - Function 150 and Other International Programs (Washington: February 13, 2012) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2011; - United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Affairs, Program and Budget Guide 2013 (Washington: Department of State, 2012) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2011; - U.S. Department of Defense, Section 1209 and Section 1203(b) Report to Congress On Foreign-Assistance Related Programs for Fiscal Year 2011 (Washington: Department of Defense, October 2012): (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2012; Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2012; - United States, Department of State, FY 2014 Executive Budget Summary - Function 150 and Other International Programs (Washington: April 10, 2013) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2012; - U.S. Department of Defense, Section 1209 of the NDAA for FY2008 (Public Law 110-181) Report to Congress on Foreign-Assistance Related Programs for Fiscal Year 2012 (Washington: Department of Defense, May 2013): (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2012; Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2012; Bolivia Global Peace Operations Initiative 2012; Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2013; Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2013; Bolivia Global Peace Operations Initiative 2013; Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2014; Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2014; Bolivia Global Peace Operations Initiative 2014; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2012 and 2013 (Washington: October 2013) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2013; - United States, Department of State, FY 2015 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, March 4, 2014) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2013; Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2014; -
  • Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2014; - Based on 2013 actual figures due to 2014 continuing resolution. United States, Department of State, FY 2015 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, March 4, 2014) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2013; Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2014; - Estimate derived using totals from: United States, Department of State, FY 2015 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, March 4, 2014) (Link to source).

Economic Aid Table Sources:

  • Bolivia Child Survival and Health 2005; Bolivia Development Assistance 2005; Bolivia Economic Support Fund 2005; Bolivia Peace Corps 2005; Bolivia PL 480 `Food for Peace` 2005; - United States, Department of State, FY 2007 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, February 2006) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Narcotics Control Economic Aid 2005; - United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, FY 2007 Congressional Budget Justification (Washington: Department of State, April 2006) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Child Survival and Health 2006; Bolivia Development Assistance 2006; Bolivia Economic Support Fund 2006; Bolivia Peace Corps 2006; Bolivia PL 480 `Food for Peace` 2006; Bolivia Transition Initiatives 2006; - United States, Department of State, FY 2008 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, February 2007) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Narcotics Control Economic Aid 2006; - United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, FY 2008 Program and Budget Guide (Washington: U.S. Department of State, September 2007) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Child Survival and Health 2007; Bolivia Development Assistance 2007; Bolivia Economic Support Fund 2007; Bolivia International Narcotics Control Economic Aid 2007; - United States, Department of State, FY 2009 International Affairs (Function 150) Budget Request--Summary and Highlights (Washington: Department of State: February 4, 2008) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Peace Corps 2007; Bolivia Peace Corps 2008; Bolivia Peace Corps 2009; - Estimate based on closest available year.
  • Bolivia PL 480 `Food for Peace` 2007; Bolivia Transition Initiatives 2007; - United States, Department of State, Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, February 2008) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Child Survival and Health 2008; Bolivia Development Assistance 2008; Bolivia Economic Support Fund 2008; Bolivia PL 480 `Food for Peace` 2008; - United States, Department of State, FY 2010 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, May 2009) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Defense Department Humanitarian Assistance 2008; Bolivia Defense Department Humanitarian Assistance 2009; - U.S. Department of Defense, Section 1209 and Section 1203b Report to Congress On Foreign-Assistance Related Programs for Fiscal Years 2008, 2009, and 2010 Washington: Department of Defense, April 2012 (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Narcotics Control Economic Aid 2008; - United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Affairs, Program and Budget Guide 2010 (Washington: Department of State). (Bolivia Child Survival and Health 2009; Bolivia Development Assistance 2009; - United States, Department of State, FY 2011 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, March 2010) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia International Narcotics Control Economic Aid 2009; - United States, Department of State, Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, Program and Budget Guide, Fiscal Year 2011 Budget (Washington: Department of State: 2010) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Child Survival and Health 2010; Bolivia Development Assistance 2010; - United States, Department of State, FY 2012 Executive Budget Summary Function 150 and Other International Programs (Washington: Department of State, February 2011) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Child Survival and Health 2011; Bolivia Development Assistance 2011; - United States, Department of State, FY 2013 Executive Budget Summary - Function 150 and Other International Programs (Washington: February 13, 2012) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Child Survival and Health 2012; Bolivia Development Assistance 2012; - United States, Department of State, FY 2014 Executive Budget Summary - Function 150 and Other International Programs (Washington: April 10, 2013) (Link to source).

Trainees Table Sources:

  • Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2005; Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2005; Bolivia Foreign Military Financing 2005; Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2005; Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2005; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2005 and 2006: A Report to Congress (Washington: September 2006) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Aviation Leadership Program 2006; Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2006; Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2006; Bolivia Foreign Military Financing 2006; Bolivia Professional Military Exchanges 2006; Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2006; Bolivia Service Academies 2006; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007: A Report to Congress (Washington: August 2007) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Aviation Leadership Program 2007; Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2007; Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2007; Bolivia Foreign Military Financing 2007; Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2007; Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2007; Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2007; Bolivia Service Academies 2007; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2007 and 2008 (Washington: January 2008) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Aviation Leadership Program 2008; Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2008; Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2008; Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2008; Bolivia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2008; Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2008; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009 (Washington: January 2011) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2009; Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2009; Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2009; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2009 and 2010 (Washington: February 2011) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2010; Bolivia Global Peace Operations Initiative 2010; Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2010; Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2010; Bolivia Service Academies 2010; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2010 and 2011 (Washington: February 2012) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2011; Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2011; Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2011; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2011 and 2012 (Washington: December 2012) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2012; Bolivia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2012; Bolivia Global Peace Operations Initiative 2012; Bolivia International Military Education and Training 2012; Bolivia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2012; - United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2012 and 2013 (Washington: October 2013) (Link to source).

Sales Table Sources:

  • Bolivia Direct Commercial Sales 2005; - United States, Department of State, Report by the Department of State Pursuant to Sec. 655 of the Foreign Assistance Act (Washington: 2006) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Foreign Military Sales 2005; - United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Defense Articles (Including Excess) and Services (Including Training) Furnished Foreign Countries and International Organizations Under the Foreign Military Sales Provisions of The Arms Export Control Act, Chapter 2 (Washington: February 2006) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Direct Commercial Sales 2006; - United States, Department of State, Report by the Department of State Pursuant to Sec. 655 of the Foreign Assistance Act (Washington: 2007) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Foreign Military Sales 2006; - United States, Department of Defense, Response to Freedom of Information Act request from Federation of American Scientists (Washington: Department of Defense, January 30, 2008) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Direct Commercial Sales 2007; - United States, Department of State, Report by the Department of State Pursuant to Sec. 655 of the Foreign Assistance Act (Washington: May 2008) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Foreign Military Sales 2007; - United States, Department of Defense, Response to Freedom of Information Act request from Federation of American Scientists (Washington: Department of Defense, January 30, 2008) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Direct Commercial Sales 2008; - United States, Department of State, Report by the Department of State Pursuant to Sec. 655 of the Foreign Assistance Act (Washington: 2009) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Foreign Military Sales 2008; - United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Defense Articles and Services authorized and furnished to foreign countries and international organizations under Foreign Military Sales, Chapter 2, Arms Export Control Act (Washington: January 15, 2009) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Direct Commercial Sales 2009; - United States, Department of State, Report by the Department of State Pursuant to Sec. 655 of the Foreign Assistance Act (Washington: 2010) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Direct Commercial Sales 2010; - United States, Department of State, Report by the Department of State Pursuant to Sec. 655 of the Foreign Assistance Act (Washington:2011) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Foreign Military Sales 2010; - United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency,Excess Defense Articles authorized and furnished to foreign countries under Part II, Chapter 2, Section 516 of the FAA [22 U.S.C.? 2321(j)](Washington: 2011) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Direct Commercial Sales 2011; - U.S. Department of State, Report by the Department of State Pursuant to Section 655 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, As Amended (Washington: Department of State, June 2012) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Foreign Military Sales 2011; - Department of Defense, DSCA Security Assistance Sales: Detailed Deliveries for Fiscal Year 2011 (Washington: DSCA, 2012) (Link to source).

Deployments Table Sources:

  • Bolivia Humanitarian and Civic Assistance 2005; - United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Program of the Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 2005, (Washington: Department of Defense, February, 2006) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Humanitarian and Civic Assistance 2006; - United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Humanitarian and Civic Assistance and Humanitarian Mine Action Programs of the Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 2006, (Washington: Department of Defense, February 2007).
  • Bolivia Humanitarian and Civic Assistance 2007; - United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Humanitarian and Civic Assistance and Humanitarian Mine Action Programs of the Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 2007, (Washington: Department of Defense, February 2008) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Humanitarian and Civic Assistance 2007; - United States, Department of Defense, Section 1209 Report to Congress on Foreign-Assistance Related Programs Carried out by the Department of Defense (Washington: August 2008) (Link to source).
  • Bolivia Humanitarian and Civic Assistance 2008; - United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Humanitarian and Civic Assistance and Humanitarian Mine Action Programs of the Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 2008, (Washington: Department of Defense, March 1, 2009) (Link to source).