U.S. Aid to Colombia, All Programs, 2006-2011

Grant military and police aid to Colombia, All Programs, 2006-2011

Aid Program 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Program Total
International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 350,248,000 386,869,000 223,124,500 228,239,000 199,950,000 168,413,708 1,556,844,208
Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 132,980,000 112,046,000 112,046,000 112,046,000 112,046,000 112,046,000 693,210,000
Foreign Military Financing 89,100,000 85,500,000 52,570,000 53,000,000 55,000,000 51,500,000 386,670,000
Department of Defense Military Construction 46,000,000 46,000,000
NADR – Anti-Terrorism Assistance 5,176,000 3,395,000 3,288,000 2,750,000 4,395,000 4,395,000 23,399,000
Excess Defense Articles 137,000 9,569,000 110,849 9,816,849
Non-Security Assistance – Unified Command 1,609,148 1,609,148 1,609,148 1,609,148 1,609,148 1,609,148 9,654,888
International Military Education and Training 1,673,000 1,646,000 1,421,000 1,400,000 1,695,000 1,695,000 9,530,000
NADR – Humanitarian Demining 300,000 691,000 400,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 5,391,000
NADR – Conventional Weapons Destruction 691,000 427,000 400,000 1,518,000
Service Academies 227,725 227,725 227,725 227,725 227,725 227,725 1,366,350
Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 222,659 222,659 222,659 222,659 222,659 222,659 1,335,954
Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 96,750 96,750 96,750 96,750 96,750 96,750 580,500
Aviation Leadership Program 59,383 59,383 59,383 59,383 59,383 59,383 356,298
NADR – Counter-Terrorism Financing 100,000 100,000 200,000
Asia-Pacific Center 2,388 2,388 2,388 2,388 2,388 2,388 14,328
TOTAL 581,832,053 602,625,053 395,205,402 400,453,053 423,404,053 342,367,761 2,745,887,375

All amounts in U.S. dollars. Numbers in italics are estimates, usually based on the closest year for which data are available.

Grant economic and social aid to Colombia, All Programs, 2006-2011All Grant Aid to Colombia, All Programs, 2006-2011Military and Police Trainees from Colombia, All Programs, 2006-2011U.S. Institutions that Trained Personnel from Colombia, All Programs, 2006-2011 (Max. 20 Shown)Arms and Equipment Sold to Colombia, All Programs, 2006-2011Deployments and Operations in Colombia, All Programs, 2006-2011

Official Descriptions of Aid to Colombia

Department of State, 2009

Document: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report

Program: International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement

U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs Policy Initiatives. U.S. counternarcotics and rule of law programs in Colombia focus on disrupting the illicit drug trade, strengthening institutions and transferring additional operational and financial responsibilities to the GOC in a sustained manner. We will continue to support Colombian efforts to consolidate security and social assistance in several key priority areas, further develop the capabilities of rural police, promote the demobilization of former combatants and concentrate eradication resources in those areas where coca growth is the heaviest. Bilateral Cooperation. Colombia is a valued partner in the fight against illegal drugs. After the successes of Plan Colombia, the U.S. is maintaining a reduced but strong counternarcotics assistance program to solidify these gains. The adoption of new tactics by narcotics traffickers, including shifting coca cultivation and cocaine production to new, remote areas, and expanding cultivation into areas off-limits to the spray program, has enabled them to continue to produce and export cocaine in large quantities. In response, Colombia adjusted its approach to focus on establishing a sustainable government presence and integrated rural development in major coca growing and FARC-controlled regions. As Colombia increases its capacity to take and hold its territory from criminal groups, drug traffickers and terrorists, the U.S. will continue to support the GOC with airlift capacity to ensure support for interdiction and eradication as well as provide training and equipment for specialized and rural police units. Continued U.S. support for Colombia?s justice sector will be important to mitigating the drug trade, as well as improving the investigation and prosecution of human rights cases. Although illicit crop eradication programs were reduced in 2009 because of U.S. and GOC funding constraints, strong aerial and manual eradication programs remained important to achieving U.S. counternarcotics goals. Aerial and manual eradication operations were closely coordinated to complement each other and optimize capabilities. Aerial eradication helped eliminate coca in remote regions and in FARC-controlled areas that were too dangerous for manual eradication, prevents the FARC and other drug trafficking organizations from receiving revenue for coca cultivation, helps improve security in remote regions because of the presence of GOC forces and keeps drugs from flooding transit zone countries like Mexico. Eradication programs that were closely linked to alternative development remain a necessary component of a larger counternarcotics effort in Colombia. In an attempt to better coordinate the multiple aspects of reestablishing security in former conflict regions, support interdiction and eradication programs and provide socio-economic development, the U.S. supported the GOC?s National Consolidation Plan. To that end, U.S. security, counternarcotics and alternative development assistance was better sequenced in several strategic zones to ensure sustained eradication, permanent government presence and alternative livelihoods for those engaged in drug cultivation. In light of growing GOC institutional capacity, the U.S. transferred operational and financial responsibility, i.e., ?nationalization,? for several counternarcotics programs to GOC control. Significant progress in nationalizing aviation programs occurred, and additional support will be turned over to local control in a sustainable fashion over the next several years. Achievements in the nationalization program in 2009 included the title transfer of 17 UH-1N helicopters in the Colombian Army Aviation program, the assumption by the Colombian National Police for both helicopter support packages that are part of the aerial eradication program and the transfer of Air Bridge Denial program to GOC control. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) training activities in 2009 included a three-week International Task Force Agent Training (ITAT) course for 14 CNP DIJIN investigators at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Georgia, with a concentration on money laundering investigations. ICE supported GOC asset forfeiture efforts to attack transnational criminal organizations and the DIJIN money laundering investigative group that performed financial analysis on targets of interest for multiple U.S. federal law enforcement agencies. In September 2009, ICE Bogota coordinated an investigation into a multi-national criminal organization dedicated of smuggling bulk cash. This joint effort ultimately resulted in the seizure of $41 million at the seaport of Buenaventura, Colombia. Additionally, ICE Bogota coordinated efforts with ICE Mexico resulting in additional seizures totaling $11 million at the seaport of Manzanillo, Mexico. ICE?s Border Enforcement Security Taskforce (BEST) teams are multi-agency teams developed as a comprehensive approach to increasing information sharing among participating agencies in identifying, disrupting and dismantling criminal organizations posing significant threats to U.S. border security. BEST teams incorporate personnel from ICE, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Coast Guard, and the U.S. Attorney?s Office along with other key federal, state, local and foreign law enforcement agencies, to include Mexico, Canada, Colombia, and Argentina. ICE will post three Colombian National Police Officers in BEST units in San Diego, New York, and Miami for periods of two years. Cooperation between Colombia and the U.S. Coast Guard remains strong. The bilateral counternarcotics agreement with Colombia is utilized on a regular basis to conduct drug interdictions in the transit zone. Colombia is an active participant in the Multilateral Counterdrug Summit, which includes the participation of Panama, Mexico and Ecuador to work towards regional counternarcotics interoperability. In 2009, the bilateral agreement directly facilitated the interdiction of 7 Colombian flagged vessels. Additionally, the U.S. Coast Guard facilitated attendance for members of the Colombian Navy at the International Maritime Officer?s Course and the Chief Petty Officer Academy. Alternative Development. By September of 2009, U.S. and GOC alternative development programs had supported the cultivation of over 659,926 hectares of agricultural, forestry plantation and/or natural forest management activities and had completed approximately 1,290 social and productive infrastructure projects over the last seven years with communities that agree to remain illicit crop free. More than 439,276 families in 18 departments have benefited from these programs. Additionally, these projects have leveraged over $759 million in private and public sector funding for alternative development initiatives. Beginning in 2010, U.S. Agency for International Development-assisted alternative development programming will be aligned in large part with the GOC?s National Consolidation Plan. Support for Democracy and Judicial Reform. The U.S. is providing extensive assistance to reform and strengthen the criminal justice system and the rule of law in Colombia. The U.S. provided training and technical assistance to support the new roles of judges, prosecutors, forensic scientists, public defenders, and police investigators under the new accusatory system. This assistance focused on practical training, including crime scene management, investigation and prosecution strategy, interviewing witnesses, and courtroom proceedings. The program provided training to more than 60,000 prosecutors, judges, public defenders, criminal investigators, and forensic experts. Specialized training and assistance has also been provided to prosecutor and investigator units focusing on criminal cases in the areas of human rights, murder, sex crimes, money laundering, narcotics, corruption, intellectual property, and organized crime. Extensive forensic assistance in the areas of DNA, ballistics, false documents, courtroom testimony, and equipment and enhancement of forensic laboratories has been shared. Particular emphasis has been on the development of exhumation teams to properly exhume mass grave sites connected to investigations and confessions of paramilitary and guerilla groups, as well as to enhance DNA identification of victim remains. Assistance has also been provided for witness protection and court security. In order to increase access to justice for millions of Colombians, the U.S. assisted in refurbishing or building 45 physical court rooms in urban areas, 14 virtual court rooms in rural zones, and either refurbished or equipped 22 public defender offices. The GOC constructed with U.S. support 59 justice houses throughout Colombia that provided formal and informal justice sector services to over eight million Colombians. Military Justice. The GOC trained 48 judges and prosecutors in their Military Penal Justice Corps in 2009. This included a one-year course for eight Magistrates and ten certification exams for Military Tribunal Court Justices. The goal of this effort was to build capability for Magistrates and Prosecutors to convene military courts and adjudicate legal violations. The Rules of Engagement and Rules for the Use of Force (ROE/RUF) Initiative was a crucial part of U.S./GOC engagement. In addition, the U.S. is supporting a Colombian Military training program, which by the end of 2010, all Colombian ground troops and commanders will have received new training and support materials, reducing risk of human rights violations associated with military operations. The Colombian Military?s investigative capabilities are carried out by the Inspector General. U.S. assistance provided for the training of 90 Inspectors General (IGs) throughout the country. All U.S. engagement incorporates principles of respect for human rights and international humanitarian law.

U.S. Department of State, 2010U.S. Department of State, 2010U.S. Department of State, 2010U.S. Department of State, 2010U.S. Department of State, 2010U.S. Southern Command, 2009U.S Department of State, 2007U.S Department of State, 2007U.S. Southern Command, 2009

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Grant Aid Table Sources:

  • Colombia Asia-Pacific Center 2006; – United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007: A Report to Congress (Washington: August 2007)(Link to source).
  • Colombia Excess Defense Articles 2006; Colombia International Military Education and Training 2006; Colombia NADR – Anti-Terrorism Assistance 2006; Colombia NADR – Humanitarian Demining 2006; – United States, Department of State, FY 2008 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, February 2007) (Link to source).
  • Colombia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2006; – United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, FY 2008 Program and Budget Guide (Washington: U.S. Department of State, September 2007) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2006; – United States, Department of Defense, Office of Freedom of Information, Freedom of Information Act Request by Marina Walker Guevara, Ref: 06-F-0839 (Washington: September 26, 2006) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Aviation Leadership Program 2006; Colombia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2006; Colombia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2006; Colombia Non-Security Assistance – Unified Command 2006; Colombia Service Academies 2006; – United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007: A Report to Congress (Washington: August 2007) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Excess Defense Articles 2007; – United States, Department of State, FY 2009 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, February 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Foreign Military Financing 2006; Colombia Foreign Military Financing 2007; Colombia Foreign Military Financing 2008; – United States, Department of State, Report on the Uses of Foreign Military Financing, International Military Education and Training, and Peacekeeping Operations Funds (Washington: Department of State: October 27, 2009) (Link to source).
  • Colombia International Military Education and Training 2007; Colombia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2007; – United States, Department of State, FY 2009 International Affairs (Function 150) Budget Request–Summary and Highlights (Washington: Department of State: February 4, 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2007; – (1) U.S. Department of Defense, Response to Freedom of Information Act Request submitted by the Fellowship of Reconciliation (Washington: Department of Defense, April 2008). (2) United States, Department of Defense, Section 1209 Report to Congress on Foreign-Assistance Related Programs Carried out by the Department of Defense (Washington: August 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Asia-Pacific Center 2007; Colombia Aviation Leadership Program 2007; Colombia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2007; Colombia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2007; Colombia Non-Security Assistance – Unified Command 2007; Colombia Service Academies 2007; Colombia Asia-Pacific Center 2008; Colombia Aviation Leadership Program 2008; Colombia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2008; Colombia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2008; Colombia Non-Security Assistance – Unified Command 2008; Colombia Service Academies 2008; Colombia Asia-Pacific Center 2009; Colombia Aviation Leadership Program 2009; Colombia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2009; Colombia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2009; Colombia Non-Security Assistance – Unified Command 2009; Colombia Service Academies 2009; Colombia Asia-Pacific Center 2010; Colombia Aviation Leadership Program 2010; Colombia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2010; Colombia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2010; Colombia Non-Security Assistance – Unified Command 2010; Colombia Service Academies 2010; – Estimate based on closest available year.
  • Colombia Excess Defense Articles 2008; – United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, FY 2008 Excess Defense Article authorized and furnished to foreign countries under Part II, Chapter 2, Section 516 of the FAA (Washington 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2008; – United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Affairs, Program and Budget Guide 2010 (Washington: Department of State). (Colombia NADR – Anti-Terrorism Assistance 2007; Colombia NADR – Conventional Weapons Destruction 2007; Colombia NADR – Humanitarian Demining 2007; Colombia NADR – Conventional Weapons Destruction 2008; Colombia NADR – Conventional Weapons Destruction 2009; – United States, Department of State, Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, February 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2009; – United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Affairs, Program and Budget Guide 2010 (Washington: Department of State) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2008; Colombia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2009; Colombia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2010; – Estimate based on last available year.
  • Colombia Department of Defense Military Construction 2010; – National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (H.R.2647), as approved by Congress (Washington: October 28, 2009) (Link to source).
  • Colombia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2010; – U.S. Congress, Conference Report 111-366 for H.R. 3288, Omnibus Appropriations Bill for Fiscal Year 2010, December 8, 2009 [See pages 1500 and 1501 of the PDF file] (Link to source).
  • Colombia International Military Education and Training 2008; Colombia NADR – Anti-Terrorism Assistance 2008; Colombia NADR – Anti-Terrorism Assistance 2009; Colombia NADR – Humanitarian Demining 2009; Colombia NADR – Anti-Terrorism Assistance 2010; Colombia NADR – Counter-Terrorism Financing 2010; Colombia NADR – Humanitarian Demining 2010; – United States, Department of State, FY 2010 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, May 2009) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Foreign Military Financing 2009; Colombia International Military Education and Training 2009; Colombia Foreign Military Financing 2010; Colombia International Military Education and Training 2010; Colombia Foreign Military Financing 2011; Colombia International Military Education and Training 2011; – United States, Department of State, Executive Budget Summary: Function 150 and Other International Programs, Fiscal Year 2011 (Washington: Department of State, February 1, 2010) (Link to source).
  • Colombia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2011; – United States, Department of State, Executive Budget Summary: Function 150 and Other International Programs, Fiscal Year 2011 (Washington: Department of State, February 1, 2010) (Link to source). Military aid estimate prorated by consulting INCLE economic to military aid ratio presented in United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Affairs, Program and Budget Guide 2010 (Washington: Department of State) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Asia-Pacific Center 2011; Colombia Aviation Leadership Program 2011; Colombia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2011; Colombia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2011; Colombia NADR – Anti-Terrorism Assistance 2011; Colombia NADR – Counter-Terrorism Financing 2011; Colombia NADR – Humanitarian Demining 2011; Colombia Non-Security Assistance – Unified Command 2011; Colombia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2011; Colombia Service Academies 2011; 

Economic Aid Table Sources:

  • Colombia International Narcotics Control Economic Aid 2006; – United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, FY 2008 Program and Budget Guide (Washington: U.S. Department of State, September 2007) (Link to source).
  • Colombia PL 480 `Food for Peace` 2006; – United States, Department of State, FY 2008 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, February 2007) (Link to source).
  • Colombia International Narcotics Control Economic Aid 2007; – United States, Department of State, FY 2009 International Affairs (Function 150) Budget Request–Summary and Highlights (Washington: Department of State: February 4, 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia PL 480 `Food for Peace` 2007; Colombia Transition Initiatives 2007; Colombia Transition Initiatives 2008; – United States, Department of State, Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, February 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Section 1207 Security and Stabilization Assistance 2007; – (1) United States, Department of Defense, Section 1209 Report to Congress on Foreign-Assistance Related Programs Carried out by the Department of Defense (Washington: August 2008) (Link to source). (2) Nina M. Serafino, Congressional Research Service, Department of Defense �Section 1207� Security and Stabilization Assistance: A Fact Sheet (Washington: CRS, November 25, 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Economic Support Fund 2008; Colombia PL 480 `Food for Peace` 2008; – United States, Department of State, FY 2010 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations (Washington: Department of State, May 2009) (Link to source).
  • Colombia International Narcotics Control Economic Aid 2008; – United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Affairs, Program and Budget Guide 2010 (Washington: Department of State). (Colombia Section 1207 Security and Stabilization Assistance 2008; – Nina M. Serafino, Congressional Research Service, Department of Defense �Section 1207� Security and Stabilization Assistance: A Fact Sheet (Washington: CRS, November 25, 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia International Narcotics Control Economic Aid 2009; – United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Affairs, Program and Budget Guide 2010 (Washington: Department of State) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Section 1207 Security and Stabilization Assistance 2009; Colombia Transition Initiatives 2009; 
  • Colombia International Narcotics Control Economic Aid 2010; – U.S. Congress, Conference Report 111-366 for H.R. 3288, Omnibus Appropriations Bill for Fiscal Year 2010, December 8, 2009 [See pages 1500 and 1501 of the PDF file] (Link to source).
  • Colombia Economic Support Fund 2009; Colombia Economic Support Fund 2010; Colombia Migration and Refugee Assistance 2010; Colombia Economic Support Fund 2011; – United States, Department of State, Executive Budget Summary: Function 150 and Other International Programs, Fiscal Year 2011 (Washington: Department of State, February 1, 2010) (Link to source).
  • Colombia International Narcotics Control Economic Aid 2011; – United States, Department of State, Executive Budget Summary: Function 150 and Other International Programs, Fiscal Year 2011 (Washington: Department of State, February 1, 2010) (Link to source). Military aid estimate prorated by consulting INCLE economic to military aid ratio presented in U.S. Congress, Conference Report 111-366 for H.R. 3288, Omnibus Appropriations Bill for Fiscal Year 2010, December 8, 2009 [See pages 1500 and 1501 of the PDF file] (Link to source).

Trainees Table Sources:

  • Colombia Aviation Leadership Program 2006; Colombia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2006; Colombia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2006; Colombia Foreign Military Financing 2006; Colombia Foreign Military Sales 2006; Colombia International Military Education and Training 2006; Colombia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2006; Colombia Non-Security Assistance – Unified Command 2006; Colombia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2006; Colombia Service Academies 2006; – United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007: A Report to Congress (Washington: August 2007) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Aviation Leadership Program 2007; Colombia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2007; Colombia Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program 2007; Colombia Foreign Military Financing 2007; Colombia Foreign Military Sales 2007; Colombia International Military Education and Training 2007; Colombia International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement 2007; Colombia Non-Security Assistance – Unified Command 2007; Colombia Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance 2007; Colombia Service Academies 2007; – United States, Department of Defense, Department of State, Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest in Fiscal Years 2007 and 2008 (Washington: January 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Asia-Pacific Center 2008; Colombia Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies 2008; Colombia George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies 2008; – United States, Department of Defense, Regional Centers for Security Studies Fiscal Year 2008 Report (Washington: Department of Defense, February 2009) (Link to source).

Sales Table Sources:

  • Colombia Direct Commercial Sales 2006; – United States, Department of State, Report by the Department of State Pursuant to Sec. 655 of the Foreign Assistance Act (Washington: 2007) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Foreign Military Sales 2006; – United States, Department of Defense, Response to Freedom of Information Act request from Federation of American Scientists (Washington: Department of Defense, January 30, 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Direct Commercial Sales 2007; – United States, Department of State, Report by the Department of State Pursuant to Sec. 655 of the Foreign Assistance Act (Washington: May 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Foreign Military Sales 2007; – United States, Department of Defense, Response to Freedom of Information Act request from Federation of American Scientists (Washington: Department of Defense, January 30, 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Direct Commercial Sales 2008; – United States, Department of State, Report by the Department of State Pursuant to Sec. 655 of the Foreign Assistance Act (Washington: 2009) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Foreign Military Sales 2008; – United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Defense Articles and Services authorized and furnished to foreign countries and international organizations under Foreign Military Sales, Chapter 2, Arms Export Control Act (Washington: January 15, 2009) (Link to source).

Deployments Table Sources:

  • Colombia Humanitarian and Civic Assistance 2006; – United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Humanitarian and Civic Assistance and Humanitarian Mine Action Programs of the Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 2006, (Washington: Department of Defense, February 2007).
  • Colombia Section 124 Counter-Drug Operations 2006; – United States, Department of Defense, Office of Freedom of Information, Freedom of Information Act Request by Marina Walker Guevara, Ref: 06-F-0839 (Washington: September 26, 2006) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Humanitarian and Civic Assistance 2007; – United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Humanitarian and Civic Assistance and Humanitarian Mine Action Programs of the Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 2007, (Washington: Department of Defense, February 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Humanitarian and Civic Assistance 2007; Colombia Section 124 Counter-Drug Operations 2007; – United States, Department of Defense, Section 1209 Report to Congress on Foreign-Assistance Related Programs Carried out by the Department of Defense (Washington: August 2008) (Link to source).
  • Colombia Humanitarian and Civic Assistance 2008; – United States, Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Humanitarian and Civic Assistance and Humanitarian Mine Action Programs of the Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 2008, (Washington: Department of Defense, March 1, 2009) (Link to source).

Defense Secretary Gates’ week in Latin America

On April 9th, the U.S. Department of Defense announced that Defense Secretary Robert Gates would be traveling to Peru, Colombia and the Caribbean “to reaffirm U.S. commitment to the region and promote closer defense cooperation.”

As we wrote last week on this blog, Defense Secretary Gates began his Latin America-focused week by signing a defense cooperation agreement with Brazil’s Defense Minister Nelson Jobim at the Pentagon on Monday. This accord will be the first in effect with Brazil in more than 30 years. The last one dates back to 1977.

According to Secretary Gates, “this agreement will lead to a deepening of U.S.-Brazil defense cooperation at all levels and will demonstrate how much more effectively we can confront shared security challenges when we work in partnership.” Transcripts of the remarks by Secretary Gates and Brazilian Minister of Defense Jobim at the signing of the agreement are available here.

There has been much comparison between the U.S.-Brazil agreement and the agreement the United States signed with Colombia last year. However, according to El Espectador, aside from the name “Defense Cooperation Agreement”, there is not much in common between them. The U.S.-Brazil agreement “has three fundamental differences: it does not allow presence of U.S. military personnel in the country and it does not include an immunity clause. Instead, it provides a broad general framework for cooperation in multiple subjects, among them information exchange, military exercises, research and development, and professor and student exchanges, which will not involve a lot of real changes.” The U.S.-Brazil defense deal does not reference a new base, as the Brazilian release stated, and contrary to the U.S.-Colombia agreement, it does not allow the use of Brazilian bases by the United States.

Peru
On April 13th, Gates arrived in Peru looking to broaden relations between both countries’ militaries and to help the Peruvian military “restructure themselves and be more focused on their internal challenges.” Gates told reporters traveling with him he also planned on raising the issue of human rights abuses by the Peruvian military and would encourage them to take advantage of training provided by the U.S. and Colombian militaries in the subject.

The next day, Secretary Gates met with Peruvian Defense Minister Rafael Rey where they talked about the importance of a future bilateral security agreement. Gates told reporters at Peruvian Army headquarters that the United States. is engaged in helping Peru with illicit trafficking, narcotics and terrorism. The discussion did not include the possibility of a U.S. military base in Peru. In a joint press conference, Minister Rey said, “We haven’t talked about the presence of American troops in Peru and we talked only about the continued deepening and the ongoing relationship between the United States and Peru.”

After the meeting with Defense Minister Rey, Gates encountered Peruvian President Alan García at the presidential palace for over an hour. Following the meeting, Gates told reporters they “had very wide areas of agreement.” They also discussed the “positive development of relations between the U.S. and Peru and the opportunities for a greater growth of that relationship in the future.”

Colombia
On April 14th, Defense Secretary Gates continued his Latin American tour with a visit to Colombia, where he planned to “offer congratulations and support for Colombia’s progress in the fight against its insurgency and the lessons it is sharing with its neighbors in the region,” according to the U.S. Department of Defense.

The next day, Gates met with Colombian President Álvaro Uribe and Defense Minister Gabriel Silva Luján where he congratulated them for their “heroic” efforts against both the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and paramilitary groups, and called Colombia an “exporter of security” and a model in the region for its fight against narcotrafficking and insurgency.

Gates later held a press conference with Silva where the Defense Secretary referred toVenezuelan-Colombian relations, saying the warning issued by the Colombian government cautioning its citizens against traveling to Venezuela “is clearly an expression of concern by the Colombian government.”

In an interview given to El Tiempo, he continued to talk about Venezuela. Asked if he thought there is an arms race in Latin America, he said, “I don’t think so. In fact, if there is an arms race, it only has one runner,” clearly referring to Venezuela but without explicitly naming it. Gates also told the reporter that he thinks Venezuela is less destabilizing to the region than it was a few years ago: “I think Venezuela faces severe internal and economic problems. That makes it a less attractive model for others.”

Caribbean

Defense Secretary Gates started his Caribbean part of the tour by arriving in Barbados on April 16th where he met seven Caribbean Island member states of the Regional Security System. In the press conference held after the meeting, Barbadian Prime Minister David Thompson said the issue of most importance discussed was “stemming the flow of illegal drugs.” In the same conference, Secretary Gates recognized “Barbados’ strong partnership in the area of security cooperation, especially its consistent support of the Department of Defense’s regional training programs.”

Gates then addressed the Regional Security System member states saying, “I want all the ministers to know that the United States understands the enormous challenges that you face in combating illicit trafficking and violent crime in the Eastern Caribbean, challenges that touch our shores as well.” Gates also referred to the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative (CBSI), recently allocated with $45 million for Fiscal Year 2010 and with an estimated increase of $25 million for Fiscal Year 2011. “That money will help us all improve our maritime patrol and interdiction capabilities, as well as domain awareness. It will also allow for additional joint training and exercises” and it will provide “development assistance in hopes of addressing the root causes of regional problems.” Technical working groups are still discussing how the money will be allocated specifically.

 

bla bla bla

This guy has some chutzpah. The US created the global black market in drugs and his buddies at the CIA brought it to South America from Vietnam and yet he “said the issue of most importance discussed was “stemming the flow of illegal drugs.” I wonder if they’re blackmailing another govt as “drug dealer” like they attempted to do with Nicaragua when suddenly it was they who were caught trafficking tons from the cocaine kitchen “contra” camps.

Who knows, these bastards think they run the world and nobody deserves to know the truth about what’s going on.

Barbados, huh? I just looked at it geographic location and you can see exactly why he was in Barbados. Hint: not drugs.

Security and U.S. Policy in Latin America

“Just the Facts” is a joint project of the Center for International Policy, the Latin America Working Group and the Washington Office on Latin America. We keep track of U.S. policy toward Latin America and its impact, especially where security is concerned. See our U.S. aid database and much more at www.justf.org.

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Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia: Consultative Groups and Posture Statements

  • Abigail and Adam discuss Secretary of State Clinton’s visit to Mexico, rethinking the Mérida Initiative, Southcom testimony in Congress, and allegations of Venezuelan ties to Colombia’s FARC. 
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Download Panel: So How's It Going? The Obama Administration 21-03-2010 (31.53 MB)

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Panel: So How’s It Going? The Obama Administration

  • A March 20 panel discussion at the Ecumenical Advocacy Days gathering, with Lisa Haugaard of the Latin America Working Group, Adam Isacson of the Center for International Policy, and Manuel Pérez Rocha of the Institute for Policy Studies. 
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Download The Week: Chile earthquake, Clinton visit, FARC-ETA in Venezuela, narcotics report, Guatemala police corruption 05-03-2010 (5.25 MB)

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The Week: Chile earthquake, Clinton visit, FARC-ETA in Venezuela, narcotics report, Guatemala police corruption

  • Adam discusses Chile’s use of the military in the earthquake’s aftermath, highlights of Secretary Clinton’s 6-country trip, charges of terrorist links to Venezuela, the annual State Department Narcotics Report, and narco-corruption in Guatemala’s police. 
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Download Extradited Colombian Paramilitaries: "Truth Behind Bars" 02-03-2010 (5.63 MB)

Duration: 12:15 m – Filetype: mp3 – Bitrate: 64 KBPS – Frequency: 44100 HZ

Extradited Colombian Paramilitaries: “Truth Behind Bars”

  • Adam interviews Roxana Altholz of the U.C. Berkeley Law School Human Rights Clinic, author of a hard-hitting report on 30 Colombian paramilitary leaders’ extradition to the United States, which has complicated efforts to win justice for their victims. 
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Download The Week: Cancún Summit, Venezuela, Colombia, Secretary Clinton's travel 27-02-2010 (6.82 MB)

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The Week: Cancún Summit, Venezuela, Colombia, Secretary Clinton’s travel

  • Abigail and Adam discuss the Cancún summit, human rights in Venezuela, reelection in Colombia, and Hillary Clinton’s trip to the region next week 
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Download February 24, 2010: Recent Arms Transfers 24-02-2010 (7 MB)

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February 24, 2010: Recent Arms Transfers

  • Adam reviews recent arms sales from Brazil, Europe Israel and the United States to several countries throughout the region. 
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Download February 19, 2010: The week 19-02-2010 (7.26 MB)

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February 19, 2010: The week

  • Abigail and Adam discuss Colombia-Ecuador relations, arms sales to the FARC, the Haiti rebuilding cost, the Falklands dispute, press freedom, citizen security in Mexico, and upcoming congressional hearings. 
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Download February 16, 2010: Citizen Security in Medellín, Colombia 16-02-2010 (8.98 MB)

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February 16, 2010: Citizen Security in Medellín, Colombia

  • Adam talks about Medellín’s rising crime rate, the reasons why violence continues to fluctuate, and a controversial effort to negotiate a “non-aggression pact” between criminal gangs. 
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Download Just the Facts: February 12, 2010 12-02-2010 (10.3 MB)

Duration: 11:15 m – Filetype: mp3 – Bitrate: 128 KBPS – Frequency: 44100 HZ

Just the Facts: February 12, 2010

  • The week: Abigail and Adam discuss Costa Rica’s elections, the Colombian defense minister’s visit, re-election in Colombia, and the UNASUR summit. 
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Download Just the Facts: February 10, 2010 10-02-2010 (8.23 MB)

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Just the Facts: February 10, 2010

  • Adam discusses civil-military relations stories in Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, El Salvador, Peru and Venezuela. 
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Download Just the Facts: February 5, 2010 05-02-2010 (5.66 MB)

Duration: 12:19 m – Filetype: mp3 – Bitrate: 64 KBPS – Frequency: 44100 HZ

Just the Facts: February 5, 2010

  • In our inaugural podcast, Adam discusses Colombia’s re-election debate, after a Constitutional Court judge casts doubt on a referendum to allow President Álvaro Uribe to run for a third term. 
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A “U.S. base” in Rio?

“United States plans new bases in Brazil and Peru to contain Venezuela,” says TeleSur.

During his stop in Quito yesterday, the assistant secretary of state for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Arturo Valenzuela, was asked about reports that the United States and Brazil are talking about creating a joint anti-narcotics facility in Rio de Janeiro.

Valenzuela responded that the United States and Brazil are discussing a bilateral security agreement. He insisted that this will not resemble the Defense Cooperation Agreementsigned by the United States and Colombia last October, which granted U.S. personnel access to seven Colombian military bases. But he didn’t explain much more.

Below is a translation of the article that broke this story, a piece that appeared last Wednesday in Brazil’s O Estado de São Paulo.

This article tells us the following:

  • The facility will be under Brazilian command.
  • It will resemble the U.S. facility (Joint Interagency Task Force South) in Key West, Florida, where representatives of several Latin American countries, and several U.S. military and law-enforcement agencies, monitor the skies and waters of the Caribbean and eastern Pacific for aircraft and boats suspected of trafficking in drugs, arms or other contraband. It will also resemble a similar European Union facility at Lisbon, Portugal.
  • As such, it will not be a military base, but a building where people gather and share intelligence.

Put that way, the new facility sounds rather uncontroversial. But as media outlets all over the region start reporting about a “new U.S. base in Brazil,” the U.S. government’s public diplomacy apparatus has responded with … silence.

This lack of an official response is troubling because we’ve seen this before. In 2008, the Southern Command caused a regional outcry by suddenly rolling out a long-dormant “4th Fleet” for its operations in the hemisphere. Alarms went off again in mid-2009, after the first leaks about the Colombia defense agreement. In neither case did U.S. officials explain what they were doing. In the face of this silence, Latin American perceptions of both moves ended up being shaped by media outlets and governments that suspect the worst of U.S. motives.

In the Internet era, several days of silence are no longer an option. The vacuum will be filled quickly by others. The Venezuela-based TeleSur network, for instance, is already reporting extensivelyabout the Brazil agreement.

Rather than let others define an agreement that may in fact be quite benign, the Obama administration must show us that it has learned the importance of a more agile public diplomacy effort in the Western Hemisphere. Explain this, please.

Here’s last Wednesday’s article.

O Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, March 31, 2010

Brazil discusses with the U.S. setting up a base in Rio

Goal would be to strengthen the fight against drug trafficking and smuggling, all under the command of Brazilians

By Rui Nogueira and Rafael Moura Moraes

At the suggestion of the Federal Police, the government of President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva discussed yesterday with the commander of U.S. Southern Command, Lieutenant General Douglas Fraser, the proposed creation of a “multinational, multi-function” base headquartered in Rio de Janeiro.

The base would form, along with two existing ones in Key West (USA) and Lisbon (Portugal), the tripod of monitoring, control and combat against drug trafficking and smuggling, especially of weapons, and surveillance against terrorism.

Douglas Fraser spent the day yesterday in Brasilia. After meetings and a working lunch with Defense Minister Nelson Jobim, the U.S. commander met with the director general of the PF [Federal Police], Luiz Fernando Corrêa.

The PF already has an intelligence attaché working at the base in Key West, Florida [The Southern Command’s Joint Interagency Task Force South]. The Planalto [the Brazilian Presidency] is to decide whether the attache at the Lisbon base will be a federal delegate or an officer of the Navy.

The base in Rio, as well as the other two, does not allow operations under the command of foreigners. Countries who participate in cooperative programs to fight organized crime always send attachés who work under the supervision of the sovereign country’s agents on the base. The idea is that with the base in Florida, which closely monitors trafficking in the Caribbean, and Lisbon, which exercises control over the North Atlantic, the Brazilian base serves as an outpost for monitoring the South Atlantic.

Tragedy. Key West is a naval air base and that operates in cooperation with the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security, federal agencies and allied forces. Since 1989, it has housed an intelligence task force that conducts operations against drug trafficking in the Caribbean and South America.It was from there that the first airplane rescue flight departed after the tragedy of flight AF 447, Air France, last June, off the coast of Brazil near Fernando de Noronha. Notified of the accident, the base mobilized its Brazilian attaché, who initiated the rescue.

The group of agents at the Key West task force aims to curtail the cultivation, production and transportation of narcotics. The British, French and Dutch contribute by sending ships, aircraft and officials. The group includes representatives of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and other Latin American countries.

The U.S. presence in the region [Key West] began in 1823 with the objective of combating local piracy. It was initially used for patrol and submarine operations and as an air training station, used by more than 500 airmen at the time of World War I (1914-1918). In 1940, it earned the designation of a naval and air base.

In Lisbon, the naval base is on the bank of the River Tagus, the Alfeite Military Perimeter. It was established in December 1958.

Fraser also came to Brazil to organize the trip of the U.S. Secretary of Defense, planned for mid-April. The visit is the reciprocation of Jobim’s trip to New York in February. On the agenda is the two countries’ strategic military cooperation, the purchase of fighter planes by Brazil and the U.S. interest in acquiring training aircraft – Embraer produces the Super Tucano. The American Boeing makes the F-18 Super Hornet, which is among the three models being considered in the FAB [Brazilian Air Force] plan for a big purchase.